How dangerous is a clavicle fracture and how is it treated
A clavicle fracture is quite a common phenomenon, it is fixed at 15% of all cases of fractures. He often are newborns, children and adolescents. During this period the bones are not yet strong enough, so the injury is very simple.
It is important to diagnose a fracture of a clavicle with displacement, in order to resort to first aid. The lack of action will lead to complications.
Classification of fractures
Mechanism of injury there are two main groups. The first category is the fractures provoked by the direct mechanism of injury. Among them include: the impact on the shoulder and direct impact to the clavicle. This leads to the development of: comminuted, transverse fractures and coopering. The second group includes injuries obtained by the indirect mechanism of action. To their number carry a blow or fall. In indirect damage to the fracture may be oblique or coopamerica. These types of injuries are the most common.
The location distinguish fractures of the clavicle:
- in the outer one-third;
- fractures of the clavicle and its medial third;
- damage to the inner third.
When fracture of the clavicle it is important to diagnose the degree of damage and to resort to first aid.
Factors influencing injury and the first signs of its existence
The main reason for the defeat of the clavicle is a strong trauma. Rarely, fractures occur due to the development of the pathological process. These include malignant tumors with metastases, which led to the erosion of the clavicle.
Traumatic lesions may develop due to indirect or direct impacts. Often observed a fall on the hand, the elbow bent and punch on the shoulder. Such fractures are characterized by indirect development. Direct lesions characteristic of the war period and develop because of the strike.
Reasons for obtaining fracture depend on many factors. So, there are open and closed injuries. This can happen because of damage to the skin fragments. According to the statistics, closed fracture is much more common open.
The main symptoms of lesions of the right or of the left clavicle have visual character. There has been a marked swelling and subcutaneous hemorrhaging. If it's an open fracture, there is severe pain, mobility of the arms is broken, damaged skin. When closed, the damage symptoms are similar, the skin is intact.
To ignore basic signs of a broken collarbone is impossible. Upon receipta serious injury must see the patient and when damage is detected to provide first aid or call the doctor.
Diagnosis of fractures
The diagnosis in this case is not difficult. On palpation of the damage easily ewupawly, due to the fact that violated the linear continuity of the clavicle. When driving there is a strong pain, and distinctly heard the crunching shards. Visually distinctive shortening of the shoulder girdle.
When the fracture is at the acromial end of the clavicle, the patient occupies a peculiar position. His body bent and his head down or turned to the side of the lesion. The shoulder is much below the normal level, the blade protruding ago.
A clavicle fracture is characterized by a slight swelling. Outlook sternal bones are shifted upwards. The shoulder is pushed down, the clavicle is displaced forward. It is like doing a rotation on its axis. To diagnose the lesion in this case is difficult. When incident fractures of the clavicle without displacement, the diagnosis for a number of visual signs.
After seeing the patient, resort to instrumental methods of diagnosis. In direct projection is radiography, it allows you to determine the position of the clavicle and the degree of damage. If the study has any doubt, x-rays done again. To do this, it is performed in the lateral projection. Does not exclude the use of computed tomography.
First aid for fracture
The person must be given an anesthetic drug, in particular Pentalgin analginum or. This will reduce the pain and proceed to further action. If the wound is open, you need to stop the bleeding, the wounds are processed, and the top is superimposed aseptic bandage. Compulsory fixation of the affected area. This is done by immobilization of the limb:
- In the axilla it is necessary to place a tight ball of fabric. Will fit wool and any other available means.
- The arm should be bent at the elbow, so that the portion of the wrist to the elbow was in position parallel to the floor.
- Forearm is mounted with the scarf or scarves.
These actions will reduce the activity of the affected arm, and thus eliminate pain. In any case can't stretch out your hand. It is advisable to bandage her torso. Clavicle, fracture which requires a certain exposure must not succumb to excessive load.
Right immobilized limb leads to complete relaxation of the hands and reduce painsensations. It is desirable to use a special splint or bandage, but in extreme conditions the first emergency they may not be. Then in the course are handy tools.
Elimination of clavicle fracture and the rehabilitation period
Fastest lose is removed in children aged up to 3 years. For the treatment in this case can be used the ordinary broad-band. Its main goal is fixation of the limb. Perhaps the use of bandage Desault, but about such effect it is necessary to consult a doctor.
In children older than 3 years and an adult intergrowth of bone is not fast. Here you will need the use of special plaster. It is able to provide rigid fixation. Before its application, the patient is required to give the anesthetic. The procedure itself is unpleasant and painful. To the use of rigid dressings perhaps the use of special tyres. Treatment of clavicle fracture are aimed at the speedy recovery of the patient.
After fusion of the bones need rehabilitation. Its main function is the recovery of motor activity of the limbs and full functionality. If the collarbone does not heal for a long time, have resorted to surgery.
Treatment of the clavicle with displacement. The affected limb is fixed with a plaster bandage. While bone fragments must be put back on their usual place. This is done by separating and lifting the shoulder. Independently reduce fragments is impossible! If there are multiple pieces used tire Kramer. In severe cases, requires surgical intervention.
Rehabilitation. Upon detection of symptoms of broken collarbone and timely treatment to the doctor the healing time is significantly lower at 2 months.
After a complete recovery using special exercises, they help restore muscle mass and motor activity of hands.
To engage in physical activity in the home. The first time will not be easy, especially in terms of normal functioning. Impact on collarbone not, so have to sleep on the other side. Their way of life will be possible only after full recovery.