The symptoms and treatment of hip fracture
Hip fracture is the damage to the cervical area of the hip resulting from the injury. Quite often he is pathological and occurs in those who suffer from osteoporosis, after a minor injury. The risk of disease progression is highest in women after menopause. Mainly hip fractures occur after the age of 65 (90%).
Distinguish between closed and open fracture, in which, in addition to bones, damaged skin. A feature of such injuries is a long accretion of fragments. The body of most patients is more able to cooperate than conservative treatment for a long way.
As injuries mainly occur due to osteoporosis, a minimal traumatic effect.
A person can get a fracture while walking, stumbled or slipped. Perhaps the development of complications, one of the most severe is necrosis of the head of the damaged bone, which is called aseptic necrosis. As a result of this process, this part of the bone is resorbed, there is a need for prosthetics.
The mechanism of hip fracture
The largest joint in the human body hip, it assumes the maximum load that occurs when standing or walking. Includes several elements:
- glenoid cavity catecholase form (located on the bones of the pelvic area);
- articular cartilage (surrounds the articular cavity);
- the head of the femur (this is the element in the articular cavity, which has a spherical shape);
- femoral neck (thinnest portion of the femur);
- small and greater trochanter (that's the protruding portions with the neck of the femur);
- the articular capsule (it is covered cavity, head and neck).
Anatomical features explaining specifics of the fractures:
- glenoid cavity includes the neck of the femur with the capsule, but without the outer layer, providing nourishment and growth;
- located near the neck of the femur at an angle, the norm is 115-135 (better when the angle is greater, because then the risk of fracture is lower, due to less load);
- artery that provides blood supply to pass through an in-depth plot between the skewers and at the bottom of the capsule;
- directly to the femur bone is only one artery, which with age grows.
Since many older people the blood supply to the hip is performed from below, the fracture that occurred near the head, leads to the fact that it almost does not enter the blood, resulting in comenecrosis and resorption.
Usually the fracture is a consequence of the traumatic action directed along the axis of the leg. For example, such a result is possible when falling on a straightened leg.
Causes of injury, types of fractures
A hip fracture is found not only older people but also young people, and cause damage.
Older people. After 40-50 years, the main reason why occur broken bones, brittle bones resulting from osteoporosis. For bone fracture enough even minimal traumatic effect. Often this category of people takes damage when falling while walking.
The factors causing the pathology:
- oncological diseases;
- lack of physical activity;
- vascular diseases (obliterating endarteritis, atherosclerosis of and other);
- blurred vision;
- diseases of the nervous system that result in movement disorders;
- starvation or malnutrition.
Young people. Because of their durable bones, the fracture is only possible due to strong traumatic impact. The most common reasons are:
- falling from a great height;
- injuries in the workplace;
- Of the accident;
- combat wounds.
Fracture can occur in any part of the neck, its location is of considerable importance and defines the forecast. The probability of necrosis depends on the distance between a broken bone and a head: the smaller it is, the higher the risk.
Damage is divided into types according to their location:
- basisarticle - you'll be the lowest location;
- the cervical is on the neck;
- subapically - the most difficult fracture, should be placed over the head.
Damage can take place in horizontal or vertical lines. Vertically oriented fractures often occur offset, bias, lead to the fact that there are more complex consequences.
In the cervical area of the hip can happen medial or lateral fracture. The first type of fracture is characterized by intra-articular lesion, the second lesion outside of the joint. Medial fractures are dangerous because of poorly fused. After surgery, you can achieve better results than the conservative treatment patients.
The direction in which occurred the displacement of bone fragments, and the extent of this bias, affect the prognosis.
There are three types of fractures withoffset:
- impacted hip fracture - one of the wreckage volutives to another fragment; this fracture can be simultaneously valgus;
- valgus - displacement of the head occurs in the direction upwards, outwards, and is accompanied by an increase of the angle between the body of the bone and the cervix;
- varus - the head moves medially, downward, the angle decreases.
The main symptoms of hip fracture
The bone damage is accompanied by such symptoms:
- the traffic violation;
- pain in the groin;
- turn feet outward, inability to turn her inside;
- the appearance of pain with axial load;
- the shortening leg;
The traffic violation. In most cases, the fracture leads to the fact that man can neither walk nor stand. Hip movement is too limited due to the violation of its configuration and function.
Pain in the groin. In most patients, the pain is weak, because fractures are the result of disease, not trauma. At rest the pain goes away, but when I try to move my leg appears again.
Turn feet outward, inability to turn it in the opposite direction. Relaxed leg is turned outward at the ankle and foot, and people cannot turn. These symptoms are caused by the peculiarities of the connections of the muscles with small and large skewers thighs.
The pain provoked by the axial load. Effleurage on the heel with a straightened leg and pressure on her cause pain.
Shortening the legs - this symptom manifested varus fractures. A slight shortening of the leg occurs as a result of decreasing the angle between the body of the femur and the neck.
A hematoma is formed in the groin area a few days after injury of the femoral head. The damaged vessels in the deeply located tissues, bleeding under the skin can be seen later.
The signs, which is accompanied by damage to the femoral bone depends on the severity of the patient's condition.
First aid for fractures of the cervical area of the hip, treatment
If you suspect a fracture, you should immediately call an ambulance and to perform all actions in providing first aid.
What is the emergency treatment of fractures of the femoral neck?
The victim should be put on the back and cover, he can't get up and down. Damaged limbs required rest, under the foot for convenience, you can put cushions or completely surround the leg bolsters. If there is severe pain, apply the analgesic drug action.
Preferably before arrival of doctors to perform splinting so that it covered twojoint: hip and knee. If the fracture happened at home, it is necessary immediately to prepare the patient to the hospital, as to avoid it just will not succeed.
Treatment can be operative and conservative way. Currently, a preferable operation. Operations are often more efficient. But the decision on the choice of an appropriate method is always made by a physician based on the individual case, taking into account the results of the x-ray.
During the period of treatment can be used on a Walker that will help to repair the hip fracture. Treatment in each case is different, the results are therefore also different.
A hip fracture occurs as a result of disease or injury, may be accompanied by bias. Displacement is always a big risk of disease. Treatment of a hip fracture is long enough. Because older bones can become weak, should be concerned about strengthening that can be achieved by high-calorie food that contains sufficient amounts of calcium.