The nuances of a fracture of the hip joint
Fracture of the hip joint is one of the most complex injuries, which require immediate, skilled care, proper treatment and rehabilitation. Most often such injuries are people older than 50 years, so treatment becomes more difficult as the bone tissue they wear out; there are many chronic diseases, which increases the recovery period.
The causes of injury, their classification
Medical handbooks, fracture of the hip joint is a trauma to the head, the femoral neck and acetabulum.
Young people cause of fracture to be the accident, the elderly - the destruction of bone tissue by osteoporosis. Common reason of such a fracture is a sharp and sudden drop to one side, a strong blow of the hip and pelvis.
Doctors klassificeret several types of fracture of the hip bone:
- Capital. A fracture occurs directly in the region of the femoral head.
- Subapically. Area of injury head joint.
- Transcervical. Damaged femoral neck.
- Basisarticle. The damaged bone is a short distance from the head joint.
All of these injuries are very dangerous to humans, especially in the elderly. If the injury is complex, then it can lead to poor circulation in the joint. When severe injury to the head often recorded cases of necromania, dangerous complications.
Signs and symptoms of a fracture
The main symptoms of a fracture of the hip joint are:
- Severe pain that does not allow to make any movements of the injured leg.
- If the damaged on to ensure peace, the pain disappear.
- If a person has a hip fracture, it is enough to knock lightly on the heel and in the groin should be a pain that will give to the injured joint.
- In the case when the bones have shifted, will be visually visible deformation of the feet: it may be either longer or shorter.
- Many patients with this injury are unable to tear away from bed, stop and hold it.
It is important to know! In case of untimely medical aid for several days in the hip part forms a large hematoma. Many patients at the time of injury is fixed pain shock: patients rarely remain in the mind. It is important to have a qualified firsthelp as a statement of fact of death from pain - is also a frequent phenomenon.
First aid in case of injury of the pelvic bones
- Do not rush immediately to transport the victim to the nearest medical facility. Fractures of the pelvic bones may occur additional threat of more severe injuries because of improper transportation.
- Forbidden to return leg to normal prior to arrival of the medical team. Experts advise not to touch the injured place.
- When the victim put on a stretcher, you first need to fix the hip joint.
- During transport it is necessary to completely fix the leg from the pelvic to ankle. The best option would be a bus, but if her hand does not, you can use any branch, stick, Board.
- In the case of an open fracture apply a tourniquet to help stop the blood from the victim.
- Be sure to consider the introduction of an anesthetic drug to relieve pain and shock from the injury.
Methods of treatment of fracture
Before choosing methods of treatment of this injury, doctors perform a comprehensive diagnosis, which takes into account its manufacturing method, patient age, type of injury, possible complications. Made sure the x-ray examination. If it says fracture with displacement, it may be assigned additional diagnosis using MRI.
Almost all cases of such fractures are treated surgically. Operations are performed under General anesthesia when a special incubation tube.
Treatment of a hip fracture occurs through the fragmentation of its end or regroup and consolidate with internal fixation. Some experts believe that total hip arthroplasty is one of the best treatment options. Since the fracture of the hip can block the flow of blood to the head of the femur and developed aseptic necrosis.
In the case of fracture in the outside top of the thigh bone doctors use internal fixation. As shown, this method allows you to quickly achieve a good result in the treatment. Being in a medical facility is the minimum.
When the examination of the patient revealed that he has strong enough bones, the injury is not violated, the blood supply to the femur, then the doctors will say on the implementation of internal fixation. During suchsurgery surgeons align the ends of the broken bone and fix it with a special metal devices. Thanks to the alignment of the broken bone, the fracture heals and faster heals.
If the patient is fixed intraarticular fracture, it is proposed an operation in which doctors fix articular cartilage on the offset or injured head. Doctors the costs of hip fracture will tell about the probability of a combination of further injury to the acetabulum. In such cases, surgeons recommend wearing special locking underwear for a certain period. It helps to reduce the risk of complications.
In the diagnosis of intra-articular fractures with atomtime bones using special surgical screws, which connect the plates.
There are a number of reasons for which surgery is not performed: the consequences of heart attack, stroke; advanced age. In such cases, the treatment takes place in a conservative fashion. Often recorded deaths as develop various complications: congestive pneumonia, problems with the digestive system, the formation of bedsores.
Conservative treatment often leads to complications: the injured joint does not recover fully their physical activity, which leads to subsequent disability.
How is the rehabilitation after a fracture?
Each of the patients, doctors warn that after a course of medical treatment necessary to conduct a proper rehabilitation.
Given that the operation changes in the biochemical motion and natural anatomy of the joint, recovery is essential to everyone. The first recommendations are occupations in the physical therapy room, they will not only help to restore locomotor activity, but will also introduce men to a healthy way of life.
It is worth noting that the rehabilitation lasts at least a year. As shown, the recovery at home is much worse than under the supervision of a specialist. If after a fracture of the hip was recommended therapeutic exercise, invite to practice specialist. He will control the entire course of training, correct exercise individually for the patient.
Be sure to rehabilitation involves the return of the muscles of the pelvis and hips in tone, which helps to relieve pain. Then with the help of special exercises returns to the normal operation of the gastrointestinal tract, improves metabolism. Be sure to carry out the massage, which helps to establish blood circulation ininjured joints, relieve swelling and eliminate bleeding.
Everyone needs to remember that a fracture of the hip joint is a challenging injury and the desire of the patient, the help of his relatives will depend on the recovery and return to normal life.