How to define and treat the sprain in the leg?
Sprain on the foot is a very common injury, and face it, not only athletes, but also ordinary people of different ages. How to recognize tension and to cure it?
What is a sprain and why does it occur
Ligaments are flexible and quite strong bundles of connective fibers that perform the function of binding the bones. The major ligaments of the lower limbs are part of the knee and ankle joints. They provide normal movement of articular joints and strengthen them. So when in the joint for some reason there are sudden or abnormal movements, ligaments greatly from this stretch. But in reality, the so-called stretching is almost always accompanied by a gap of some number of individual collagen fibers.
Why is this happening?
- Stretching of the lateral ligaments of the knee joint result from excessively strong deflection of the tibia inward or outward.
- Anterior and posterior cruciate knee ligaments become damaged when hit in the Shin has the front or the back.
- Trauma of ankle sprain usually occurs when the foot "tucked" out.
Signs of a sprain
When you sprain on the foot, you experience the following symptoms:
- a swelling in the affected joint, until a strong swelling;
- redness and increased skin temperature at the site of injury;
- hematoma (bruising), which usually appears just below the stretched ligaments;
- when trying to make a movement in the injured joint may occur severe pain, especially if that movement caused the sprain;
- when pressing on the soft tissue in the area of the stretched ligaments also occur and soreness;
- the pain appears while walking and in that moment, when a person comes to the affected limb.
Sometimes at the time of moderate or severe injuries can be heard on quiet cotton - this sound is accompanied by the rupture of collagen fibers.
It should be noted that quite often a sprain is confused with complete rupture or fracture of the leg, because the symptoms of all these conditions are very similar. There are still some signs which sometimes help to distinguish one injury from another.
For example, in the case of fracture pain notpass even at rest, while sprains pain subside, if the person is not moving. In addition, when a broken leg could not move my fingers may be absent or greatly deteriorate the sensitivity of the skin below the scene of the alleged fracture. In addition, the pain increases when pressing on the bone in the injured area, and if you gently tap the leg with the index finger (e.g., the heel), pain is noticeably worse. Apparent symptoms of a fracture is pathological mobility of the limb, its deformation or displacement (it can be typical for a dislocation, if occurred in the joint). Finally, when a bone fracture heard a crunch, and cotton is usually absent.
Much more difficult is to distinguish between a sprain and a break. With regard to complaints, the difference in tension and gap is that tear is characterized by more severe pain and impaired motor activity. To distinguish between simple stretching and full of tears, the doctors conduct special tests.
How to determine the tensile
To diagnose tears of the lateral ligaments of the knee the doctor fixes external or internal surface of the knee joint and is trying to reject the tibia outward or inward. If the Shin is strongly rejected, this indicates the gap.
To detect rupture of the cruciate ligaments of the knee, the patient lies on his back, an injured leg flexes at the knee at a right angle. Trauma grabs the drumstick hands right and left and with moderate force trying to shift it forward and back. When you break the tibia shifts ("symptom of the drawer").
Some time after rupture of the lateral or crucial ligaments of the knee joint when there is pain and movement in my leg recovers, draws attention to the instability in the knee, as in walking foot "falls". When ligament rupture of the ankle joint during walking shifting of the foot in plantar side, or inside.
In the case of stretching is made mandatory x-ray of the injured extremity. The x-rays ligaments are not visible, therefore, to discover their rupture or sprain thus not succeed, but radiography allows to exclude the presence of fracture. In cases of suspected rupture of the cruciate or lateral ligaments of the knee joint, the doctor may hold your foot in a certain position before you can do x-ray. As a result, it will be seen pathological displacement of the bones and articular surfaces, characterizedfor rupture of certain ligaments. In case of rupture of the patellar tendon in the picture the doctor will see him move up. In addition, when gaps in the picture reveals the expansion of the joint space, which in simple sprains usually does not happen.
In some cases, in addition to x-ray the doctors recommend ultrasound examination of the damaged joint. When rupture of the ultrasound determines the presence of fluid in the joint, while stretching to such consequences do not result. Sometimes done MRI of the affected joint. Such a study gives the opportunity to see the ligaments and to evaluate the level of damage.
How to treat a sprain on his leg
In normal stretching should be performed following remedial measures:
- take prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatories;
- to provide the injured extremity at rest for at least 1-2 days, while the leg should be slightly elevated;
- apply on the affected area the ice pack every 2-3 hours for 15-20 minutes (to carry out such procedures it is desirable first 2-3 days after injury), or do contrast baths with hot and cold water;
- to fix the joint by applying an elastic bandage;
- after the disappearance of pain and swelling to do a special physiotherapy.
We should also mention the bandaging and wearing special knee pads in trauma to the ligaments of the knee joint. Bandaging an injured joint should not be too tight and long lasting as it can disturb the circulation in the limb and slow the process of regeneration. Knee pad you can't use too often and as long as it leads to atrophy of the muscles that should support the joint.
Conservative treatment for complete rupture of the ligaments is also sometimes possible, and in addition to these events, it involves a complete immobilization of a limb with plaster, as well as intra-articular injections of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. But often, the torn ligaments it is necessary to resort to operative treatment, especially when after conservative therapy observed instability in the joint.
There are various methods of surgical treatment of torn ligaments, but all of them are based either on the stitching of the ends of the torn ligament, or plastic - strengthen damaged ligaments. In the conservative treatment of ligament rupture and after surgery requires more prolonged immobilization of the limb than in the treatment of sprains, so the inability to work in case of tears may take several months.
If the wrong to treat a sprain or torn ligament in the leg,may lead to destabilization of the joint, which would entail the disruption of whole articular complex.
This can disrupt the normal movement of the limb will eventually develop osteoarthritis. After completion of the course of treatment is required re-visit the trauma, to ensure the absence of any complications.