What is hip dysplasia in children?
A disease such as hip dysplasia in children, refers to orthopedics. Unfortunately, the disease is not always makes itself felt in the form of visual symptoms, so parents should not ignore the preventive examinations by a specialist. This abnormality is congenital in nature, that is, problems with the joints of the baby begin even in the fetal period. Therefore, once the child is born, doctors perform diagnostics.
Some of the features
Hip dysplasia in babies is caused by the underdevelopment of the joint or one (or several) of its parts (cartilage, support muscle, acetabular or ligaments that are responsible for maintaining the femur in the desired position). If violated at least one of these components, then the child will have problems.
Congenital dislocation at first may not be noticeable, moreover, pain may not bother the child will behave calmly and neoprene. Unfortunately, parents don't force the eye to determine this pathology, and to understand that it will be the first steps of a baby. Therefore, orthopedists note that children must show to the specialists every 3 months after the birth, as hip dysplasia in newborns may not immediately seem, to 6 months to make itself felt.
If the parents have any doubt, it is better to be safe and to show the baby to a specialist. The earlier a violation is found, the faster you will be able to get rid of it. It is impossible to think that the disease has no effect. First and foremost, it will affect the gait. But secondly, the dysplasia is bad for the elasticity of ligaments, only instead of harden, they become too loose.
Hip dysplasia in children: causes symptoms
Even today, doctors cannot come to a consensus about why babies occurs dysplasia. But still, the majority believes that it is a genetic predisposition. Identifies a number of features of fetal development that can cause such a problem.
- Genetic predisposition. A number of studies proved that there is a certain kind of relationship between generations, which in most cases is transmitted through the femaleline.
- Sex. Oddly enough, but dysplasia of the hip is most common in girls (80% of all cases).
- Wrong the mother's hormones. If in the 3rd trimester, women have actively developed a progesterone, it can cause weakening of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus.
- If while in the womb the child is adopted is not quite the correct position. Its activity could thus prevent the full development. In addition, if the baby is larger than expected (though perhaps this is the norm) sizes, this can also prevent the proper development of the joints.
- Lifestyle and moved mother to the disease . Such diseases include toxemia, deficiency. And ecologically polluted area, which is home pregnant, also has an effect.
Very often develops hip dysplasia in infants born prematurely. In this case, the fabric just did not have time to fully form.
All these factors can be preconditions to the formation of pathology. But even the doctors are not 100% sure that dysplasia is developing in these moments.
Symptoms of hip dysplasia
Diagnosis of hip dysplasia in children by parents is complicated by the fact that visually it may not always be noticeable, especially if the pathology is mild. In this case a child can feel completely comfortable and not feel any pain. This leads to the need to show the child the doctor. First, if such a problem exists, an experienced orthopedic surgeon on time it will notice and tell you how to treat dysplasia. Secondly, routine inspection wouldn't hurt.
But there are some symptoms that can help parents to determine hip dysplasia your child:
- one of the legs of the child may be shorter than the other;
- if the legs pull in one straight line and bring together, the folds can be positioned at different levels to be asymmetric;
- ideally, a baby's legs can be diluted to 90°, the patient as a child in this movement can cause pain, causing him to start crying, or the parents feel "obstacle";
- when carrying out even simple physical exercises, the head of the femur easily leaves the groove, so that the joint is too flexible (this process may be accompanied by clicking);
- the joint is too flexible, causing feet to adopt an unnatural position.
Such signs - direct evidence of dysplasia. In this case, you must immediately contact a specialist.
The abovethe symptoms for children who are not yet walking, but there are a number of signs that indicate dysplasia from kids who already make your first steps:
- if the pathology affected both joints, the gait of a baby will be swinging;
- if the process involved only one joint, the child when driving will limp or walk on toes.
Usually to identify such a problem if the child is under six months, use ultrasound. Further diagnosis is carried out using x-rays. Hardware methods allow to determine the location and form of violations:
- acetabulum is deformed or flattened;
- correctly developed head joint and the surrounding cartilage;
- is there any tension in the capsule and ligaments;
- what are the angles at the hip bones;
- is there a way out of the bone of the acetabulum, and if so, how far.
All these factors make a complete picture of the disease and prescribe treatment.
It eliminates dysplasia TBS?
When dysplasia the femoral head can not be fully fixed in the acetabulum. All therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating this problem. First of all, by securing the lower extremities in this position, which is nature. Will also be work on strengthening muscle and ligament and cartilage that all segments were not as mobile.
If the parents suspected dysplasia, they need to consult an orthopedist or traumatologist. At first the kid inspect and guide the ultrasound or x-ray, and then the results determine how to help the child. What will be used and how long depends on the severity and form of pathology.
Scheme to combat hip dysplasia can include the following methods:
If your child is diagnosed with previsich, the treatment will be of a preventive and curative character. First and foremost, in this situation, measures should be aimed at the correct development and strengthening of the joint. One of such methods is the wide swaddling, when 2 of the folded diaper to navigate between the limb and lock. Thus, the femoral head is in the acetabulum, and the legs themselves constantly in a divorced position, the joint is correctly formed. The cartilage will gradually harden and the capsule with muscular-ligamentous apparatus to be strengthened. It is worth to pay attentionwhat for these kids is absolutely contraindicated the tight swaddling. The fact that the joint will then begin to take a position inside, and fusion will begin to occur wrong.
Conservative methods of struggle
If the child has a congenital dislocation or subluxation, the approach should be more serious.
At the initial stage prescribed preventive measures, and if by 3 months there is no change, use special orthopedic devices. This will have to use up to 2 years. Such things allow for rigid fixation or fully immobilize the joint, placing it in the folded and deployed position. One such example is the design - Pavlik's stirrups.
Also to this category of remedial measures include the appointment of physiotherapy, electrophoresis, mud therapy, physical therapy, including exercises to strengthen the hip and surrounding muscles. Mothers are encouraged to walk with the child to the pool, where he will have more to swim on the belly. It is advisable to undergo special massage that will help to strengthen not only the muscles of the thighs, and buttocks.
Surgery. This method is suitable in cases when epiphyseal dysplasia has an extreme degree, all the above methods have been tried, but did not give the desired result.
In this case, the operation may carry a few appointments:
- if earlier attempts have been made to reduce the dislocation, but failed;
- it is necessary to hold the osteotomy, when the share of the affected bone into two segments to give them a new position to correctly splice;
- to eliminate pain and restore the functionality of the joint;
- if the baby has a problem with the difference of the lengths of the lower limbs, is a palliative intervention;
- it may be so that the affected joint is not subject to restoration, so there is the need to joint replacement - the installation of an artificial prosthesis.
But it is worth noting that any surgery requires proper and long rehabilitation. To align the legs, the child appointed special devices. Parents need to visit specialists who will spend time with the child exercises aimed at restoring the health of joints and muscles.
What are the consequences of dysplasia of the child?
The sooner parents seek help with the problem to specialists, the more favorable the prognosis. Due to the conservative methods 95% of all cases have a successful outcome, withthe condition that parent in time to pay attention to your child. To year this problem may disappear.
With regard to the effects of dysplasia, they may be the following:
- aseptic necrosis, since the foot is not receiving sufficient blood, resulting in disability;
- displaycases osteoarthritis is degeneration of the joint and all tissues;
- neurotron - start the formation of a new joint, and the femur leaves the acetabulum, and find a new place of focus.
So, to avoid such bad consequences, because half of them mean disability in the future, parents should not neglect the health of your child.