Trauma eye injury
Eye injury - a fairly common injury that can be affected and the child and the adult.It is important to understand that eye injuries are extremely diverse in nature, they carry different degrees of risk, some of them can lead to partial or complete loss of vision. First aid should be given immediately.
General information about trauma
Eye injury - a kind of injury eyeball with traumatic contact with a blunt object (a hand or other part of a body of the enemy, a stick, a ball, etc.), and in the fall with damage to the corners of all kinds of furniture. Depending on the damaged tissue, doctors diagnose injuries of the sclera, cornea, lens, vascular tract, optic nerve, retina, eyelids and lacrimal apparatus.
Since most of the tissues surrounding the eye, have little subcutaneous fat but very broad network of vessels, which is adjacent to the facial bones, most injuries caused by contact with a blunt object, characterized by massive hemorrhages and ruptures of thick fabric.
In addition, in some cases, the injured bony walls of the orbit. The consequence is often a infringement of the soft tissue located between the bone atomtime.
Lacrimal tubules lose their integrity, this is the result of damage to internal adhesions century. This injury leads to a permanent watery eyes.
Sometimes trauma "of the cartilage" both the lower and upper eyelid can lead to the development of the defect (colobomas). This defect leads to disruption of epithelial function century. When it comes profuse lacrimation. But often there is a drying of the cornea, which leads to infection of the conjunctival cavity. In addition, rupture of ocular adnexa causes a hemorrhage in the thickness of the eyelids. This type of injury is dangerous because of the orbital vessels begin to ooze blood. In this situation, the eye begins to bulge. This interferes with mobility may occur as the closure of the optic fissure. There is an effect of diplopia (double vision). The result of this is often blurred vision.
Trauma of the orbit, or more precisely the damage to her bone walls, having borders with the pneumatic sinuses, you can see the development of subcutaneous emphysema. Felt pain during palpation of the margins of the orbit and the retraction of the eyeball, the deterioration of his mobility. The upper eyelid in such a situation is omitted. Directly inflicting injury on the vision disappears, which is a consequence of the infringement of the optic nerve. In addition, there may be bleeding in one orseveral departments of the eyeball.
Often when such injury is damaged from several different agencies. Here it is necessary to mention the concussion (concussion of the eyeball) characterized by the development of pathology of the retina of the shell.
Symptoms and diagnosis
This injury is characterized by a number of symptoms:
- different degree of pain in the injured eye;
- the development of photophobia;
- the manifestation of watery eyes, the intensity of which depends on the nature and strength of the injury;
- blurred vision;
- hemorrhage of varying strength and location;
- the occurrence of blepharospasm - involuntary closure of the eyelids.
Provided that the concussion is not combined with rupture of the eyeball or penetrating injury, consequences of injury may not be immediately apparent. After hitting the man quickly recovers and gives value quickly past the pain, but after some time his vision starts to deteriorate.
The reason for this phenomenon is quite simple. Often hemorrhage with concussion in the inner parts of the eyes, so the sign of trauma be invisible. If time does not begin treatment, the blood curdle, after which the site of the clot will be gradually formed connective tissue. This may result in injury to the lens, which can develop into cataracts, or retinal detachment, the formation of contusion glaucoma. All of these extremely unpleasant effects, over time, cause vision loss.
Even the slightest eye injury should not self-medicate and ignore the injury, and be sent for consultation to a specialist.
Eye doctor should examine the victim to establish an accurate diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.
First aid and treatment
Contusion of the eyeball should be treated in consultation with a specialist. It is important that the eye was at rest before the appointment. The best solution would be the imposition on the injured on a lightproof bandage. In addition, you should make any sudden movements, it is better to avoid any physical activity.
Very well, if at hand in the event of such grass will be sulfacetamide. They should bury the eyes in any case of injury to prevent.
It should be understood that a number of contusions of the eye provides treatment in a hospital. Parents should be careful, the child is not always possible to suspect that injury. So if a kid complains of pain in the eye, it is better to go to the clinic.
When inspection reveals the symptoms of blunt injuries to the eye, its appendages andwhen there are breaks in the soft tissue, the doctor puts a sterile dressing on the eye.
After that, the victim goes to the hospital or to an office of the ophthalmologist.
Penicillin can be used in cases where for some reason there is no opportunity to provide specialized care. It acts as a preventive measure. Method of administration - intramuscular injection.
Allowed the instillation of 0.25% solution of chloramphenicol or 30% solution of sodium sulfacyl.
After refinement by an ophthalmologist amounts of damage should produce x-rays of the orbits and skull. Moreover, this x-ray is done in 2 planes. If there is evidence, the wounds of appendages of the eye are subject to primary surgical treatment or surgery on the tear canalize aimed at restoring its integrity. Sometimes it is a revision of the sclera and surgical treatment of the wound of the sclera, which includes reposition the prolapsed intraocular membranes.
Drug treatment consists of a hemostatic funds, administered intramuscularly, medicines, whose action is directed on reduction of vascular permeability. Used drugs that reduce the level of intraocular pressure. Medication purpose antibiotic often used topically. Use a variety of decongestants and anti-inflammatory medications, for example dexasone.
Often prescribed anti-anxiety medications, in the absence of concussion and prescribed painkillers.
In some cases, can be prescribed vitamins, particularly vitamin A and b, solutions of quinine, antibacterial ointments, etc. Can be used and other methods of treatment, that decision is made by the doctor.
It should be noted that for cats, dogs and other domestic and wild animals such trauma is also not uncommon. Because in case of suspicion about the injury it is advisable to take him to the vet. For animals, these injuries are no less dangerous than for people.