The symptoms and possible complications of the injury of the ankle joint
Very nasty injury, not uncommon for a person, is an injury of the ankle joint. Almost everyone in one form or another, hurt this joint. However, as statistics show, few people know the mechanism and the correct procedure in case of injury of the joint.
Features of the joint
Among the many joints in our body, the ankle joint has a very large size. It is formed by three bones: the foot taranrog (like block), peroneal, and tibial. The data of bone formation fortified ligamentous apparatus, and a thin articular capsule.
Due to the presence of unit this joint is capable of two types of basic movements, produced around the frontal axis. In other words, he can bend and straighten. When stop is omitted, it is in a bent form. It is in this state it can be swung out of the way.
Types of joint injuries
This joint is subject to a variety of injuries, depending on the nature of the influencing forces. Some injuries are very similar in symptoms, while others differ significantly. So there are the following types of injuries:
- fracture or crack of bones, which passes through the articular surface;
- crack or fracture of the tibia that occurred above the joint;
- concomitant fracture;
- tear or rupture and sprain;
In addition to these, there are other types of injuries, taking into account the displacement and/or complications of varying severity.
About the injury and its diagnosis
What is exactly a bruised ankle from the rest of the injuries listed above? It's pretty simple, this injury is characterized by the absence of violation of integrity of tissues and is caused by the external force on the joint or area.
The cause of trauma in any case - the external action. Most injury to the periosteum, as the ankle is not actually protected due to the strong protrusions. Their is nothing to protect: neither the muscle, not fatty tissue. Suffer from the injury of soft tissue.
Often with this injury is possible to observe these symptoms:
- immediately or over time, there is pain. It can be mild or, conversely, very strong. Tends to increase with movement, especially walking, or during migration, at her weight in a standing position. Appearing at the time of injury, it mayto remain a few days, and with the development of complications and longer;
- it is painful to move foot;
- often the injured leg may occur, but, nevertheless, often there is lameness;
- there is swelling of the soft tissues surrounding the damaged joint. Stress swelling can increase significantly;
- there is a growing hematoma (bleeding into soft tissue), it is a consequence of the rupture of small blood vessels;
- due to swelling of the toes and foot can some time feel numb.
Often the symptoms of injury of the ankle joint is very similar to that in the stretching of tendons and ligaments or fracture of the ankle.
The symptoms of this trauma for a child and adult alike. But in young children they are not always easy to determine. Indeed, when the baby is crying from pain, it is difficult to understand what it is. Yes, and adult is not always possible to make a correct diagnosis. Him to see a specialist. In other words, you should go to the doctor or to call it home.
The doctor the traumatologist will make the initial inspection, ask the victim about the feelings and direct x-rays of the joint. The pictures in this are made in two projections.
The types of possible complications
Untimely appeal to the doctor, excessive stress on the injured joint, incorrect treatment and other factors can lead to the development of complications.
Post-traumatic arthrosis in the case when injury was accompanied by damage to articular cartilage, and in the case of multiple injuries, some time can pass with high probability in degenerative disease.
Synovia occurs due to inflammation of the inner layer of the capsule and represents the accumulation of fluid. This complication can occur after a few days after trauma to the joint. Visible swelling around the joint, and on palpation of the joint space in any place along the entire length to give pain.
Hemarthrosis is the accumulation of blood in the joint damage to the capsule. In the case of heavy bleeding having to do the puncture to remove blood. Then by 1 or 0.5% solution of novocaine, produce sanitation joint.
There are times when manifested Syndrome sudeka. It is characterized by a number of negative phenomena, such as changes in the trophic nature of tissues, violation of blood flow, as well as local osteoporosis. Visually, one can observe the growth in the area of edema, thinning of the skin. She begins to Shine. The joint becomes tight movable. The main reason for the development of this syndrome is the lack of movement of the joint for a long time after the injury. For thisreason during treatment, this injury should not be too long to maintain immobilization. It is necessary to begin to carry out a complex of therapeutic exercises.
First aid and treatment
Treatment of this injury starts with first aid: when you can perform the following actions.
The foot is placed so that she was on the dais. The injury site is treated with emulsion How to reduce pain and swelling. You can if you lack to replace it with an iodine grid.
Be sure to apply a pressure bandage, preferably of elastic bandage. In its absence, is allowed to replace conventional bandage or any cloth. The beginning of produce bandaging from the toes, gradually rising up, so that each round of the bandage overlap by 1/3. Should not be too much to roll up a bandage, it can disrupt blood flow.
If the pain is really bothering, it is recommended to take the painkillers: analgin, Bilstein, etc. or to inject Ketonal, diclofenac, etc.
On the scene of the injury apply cold. Hold it not less than forty and not more than sixty minutes.
After first aid should contact a doctor for determining diagnosis and the appointment of appropriate treatment.
It is very important that during the first days of the leg were in a state of utmost peace.
It is advisable to put it on something soft, for example, a pillow. If it is badly bruised, is applied to the movement of the cane.
In a number of severe injuries used plaster overlay langetti. The joint should be immobilized for weeks, in some cases, this period may be extended up to 10 days.
On a bruised ankle on the second day you should start to apply anti-inflammatory creams, etc. But only on the condition that they do not contain steroids. Usually the ointment is used 3 times a day.
Shin, foot and toes, starting from the second day, you can gently massage it in. Three days allow the transition of the massage and joints if pain and swelling began to recede. Nice to combine massage with physiotherapy.
On the fifth day should start a daily receptions a warm (not hot) foot baths with sodium chloride, preferably sea salt. In a bucket of water, you need about 300-400 grams of salt. The appointment should last no longer than 20 minutes.
Then was necessary to apply compresses. Applied once a day for 1 hour. Allowed applying warm warmers.
Doctor, if the injury is very strong, may prescribe physical therapy. Whenproper treatment, chances for full and rapid rehabilitation of the joint is very high.
Recall, it is not necessary to treat the injury without seeking medical attention, in order to avoid unpleasant consequences, prolonged treatment or complications.