What does a pulmonary contusion?
One of the most dangerous closed injury is a bruised lung. This injury is treatable, but in some cases there may be serious consequences and even be fatal, because lungs are a vital organ that provides oxygen to the body.
A bruise is damage to soft tissue without perforation. When lung injury there hemorrhage in the lung tissue, there is damage to the blood vessels and bronchi, but the membrane that covers the lungs (pleura), remains intact. In some cases in the lung tissue formed cavity with air or blood.
Pulmonary contusion appears as a result of hitting, shaking or squeezing on. The cause of trauma may be different. Often patients with this diagnosis admitted to hospital after road accidents. A particularly high risk of injury from drivers when hitting chest on steering wheel of a car. This injury can result from sharp blows on the chest and even careless fall.
How to recognize a pulmonary contusion?
Suspect this insidious injury can not immediately after the incident. Because the symptoms often manifest later incident. Gradually we have the following clinical picture:
- Increasing shortness of breath.
- Hematoma at the point of impact.
- Moist rales in the chest.
- Rapidly progressive cyanosis (blueness of the skin).
- The expressed tachycardia.
- Expectoration of blood. This symptom is not mandatory, and appears only in some cases.
- The increase in the chest. It occurs due to the accumulation of blood in tissues.
- Severe pain. Especially strongly it is felt in the case of deep breath.
- In some cases, may stop breathing. But it happens rarely.
If the victim observed at least some signs of the above needs an urgent diagnosis of the chest to determine the nature of the injury and the extent of lung damage.
Emergency assistance if you suspect an injury
Suffered from chest injuries need to provide emergency assistance.
This will help minimize the unpleasant consequences, to prevent complications and relieve the symptoms. On the injury it is advisable to act cold. It may be an ice pack or a plastic container with chilled in the freezer with water. Ice packs do a few times for a few minutes during the first day.
Prolonged exposure to cold on the chestdesirable - it can cause freezing of skin or respiratory disease, so don't place a cold compress on for a long period of time.
Should ensure that the patient is at rest, it is desirable that it was moving as little as possible. Best of all, in the first hours after trauma the patient was in polusidya position. No medical drugs to the consultation of the traumatologist to give the victim is not necessary, as this can hinder the diagnosis.
Diagnosis of injuries of the lung
To make an accurate diagnosis in case of injuries to the thorax can only health professionals. To do this, use different methods of survey:
- The external examination. The presence of hemorrhage at the site of injury allows the physician to suspect a possible injury of the lungs.
- The method of auscultation (listening). Listen to the lungs using special tools like a stethoscope or phonendoscope. Sometimes the doctor just puts his ear to the chest. By listening you can reliably to note the fact of injury, as this injury clearly felt moist rales in the lungs. Wheezing in the lungs is very similar to the sounds that occur when air is passed through a liquid medium. This wheeze may be finely - it is formed in small bronchi and resembles the sound of air bubbles popping very quickly. Also, if injury possible srednepuzyrchatye wheeze - he came from the medium bronchi.
- Method of ultrasound. It is quite informative on the affected area visible echo-positive shadow.
- X-ray examination. The x-rays at the sites of damaged tissue appears polymorphic darkening. In addition, the x-ray images it is possible to judge whether there is a hematoma in her lungs. Injury can also cause cysts in the lungs filled with air. If they do occur, the radiograph will show it is necessary. It should be borne in mind that the radiological signs of this injury do not always manifest themselves immediately. Therefore, if possible, better to spend a computer tomography of the chest. It will give doctors a detailed picture of the damage, even when the injury took quite a bit of time.
- A study of gas composition of blood. Such analysis allows to detect the decrease in blood oxygen levels, which often occurs with fractures of the lung.
- Fiber-optic bronchoscopy. The survey with the help of a special device - a bronchoscope. Hollow tube with a light source is introduced into bronchi and allows us to consider the condition of their mucosa. The doctor looks at whether there is swelling, redness, areas of inflammation and blood pooling.
Therapy in lung injury depends largely on severity of injury and presence of concomitant injuries.
The main goal of treatment of contusions of the lung - to prevent pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage. If the pneumonia is still there, the treatment is directed primarily at her.
Injuries mild all treatment usually comes down to a complete rest and use of pain medications. Pain in chest can last up to several days. The weakness of the injured lung in this period leads to breathing difficulty and appears expiratory dyspnea.
With strong bruises usually prescribe therapy anti-inflammatory medicines. Often resort to antibiotics this is necessary in order to prevent the development of dangerous complications of pneumonia. Because pneumonia after pulmonary contusion may lead to death. Often prescribers of broad spectrum, for example, Ceftriaxone.
In some cases, to remove excess sputum resort to remedial bronchoscopy: mucus is extracted from the bronchus under video control.
A few days after the injury, the doctor may prescribe physiotherapy, that really helps to reduce inflammation and promote the resorption of hematomas.
It is important to know that in the first days after injury is extremely desirable to act on the affected area warm. Since high temperature may increase swelling and trigger inflammation.
To prevent various complications, for rehabilitation and strengthening of the affected lung, there is a very good tool - a complex of breathing exercises. This is done gymnastics after decrease all the unpleasant symptoms, when the treatment is nearing completion. Also for quick recovery of the lungs will be very useful Hiking in the fresh air. Extremely beneficial effects on the respiratory system is the air of coniferous forests. Therefore, if possible, should go there at least for a few days.
The consequences of pulmonary contusion
If the injury time has not been diagnosed, its effects can be very dangerous. The most common complication of pulmonary contusion is post-traumatic pneumonia. This is a very dangerous disease that cannot be ignored, otherwise it can result in death of the victim.
If the victim went to the hospital in time and he was given necessary medical help, this nastythe most common complication is avoided. The person is completely cured and back to normal life.