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How to give first aid in dislocation and fracture?

In all situations the person is not immune from injury, and that, therefore, faced with this question: how will first aid in dislocation and fracture to the victim? Accidents happen suddenly, and therefore can result in various injuries. What to do if you come across it? And how to administer first aid for sprains and fractures to the victim?

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An accident can happen where there may not be nearest medical institution, so it is important for each of us to know the basic principles of emergency care for injuries and be able to help the victim, not a loss in this situation.

Musculoskeletal system of our body has a special strength, but despite this, the variety of damaging factors leads to sprains and damage to the integrity of the bone. All these consequences in turn affect the physiological health and the quality of his life.

How to recognize a dislocation and a fracture?

vidy povrezhdeniya skeletaDuring the incident of injury, before first aid, you need to recognize what kind of damage occurs. Despite the fact that any injury is common symptoms, you need to be able to distinguish damage type, as it plays an important role for further tactics. Knowing the distinctive symptoms of sprain and fracture, order and the principal moments of emergency, is not difficult promptly and efficiently to help the victim.

Sprain is damage to ligaments which hold the joint. During the stretching or tearing of ligaments is offset from the joint to the articular surface.

Fracture, unlike dislocation, is characterized by the violation of the integrity of bone tissue. The fracture can be in the form of cracks, partial or full fracture.

Symptoms associated with a dislocation

diagnostika vyviha kistiAny trauma is accompanied by General symptoms. Victims complain of the presence of severe pain, swelling, bruising and lack of mobility of the limb. Therefore, it is important of the common symptoms identifying typical clinical signs of dislocation and fracture.

The main symptoms, manifested in dislocation:

  1. The deformation and displacement in the joint.
  2. The impossibility of motion in the joint due to severe pain.
  3. Swelling due to edema.
  4. Hematoma.

A distinctive feature of the manifestations of dislocation is pain that occurs immediately after injury.

Symptoms associated with a fracture

dislocation of the shoulder joint" alt="the Mechanism of dislocation of the shoulder joint">depending on the integrity of the skin, fractures are divided into open and closed. Open fractures compared to closed, the flow is heavier as are accompanied by soft tissue damage, bleeding and wound infection.

The main symptoms of a fracture:

  1. Pain.
  2. The restriction in movement.
  3. Swelling and bruising increasing in the place where there is corruption.
  4. The feeling of pathological mobility of bone fragments.
  5. Changing the length of the limb.
  6. In open fractures can be observed from the wounds of bone fragments.

The first aid for sprains

poryadok okazaniya pervoj pomoshi pri vyvihe

  1. In dislocation the limb should be at rest. For this, the patient must sit, give him a comfortable position that won't cause pain.
  2. To provide cold to the injured area. In this case, suitable lotions with cold water or a knot of ice. Should be guided by the presence of a means. The cold will reduce pain, prevent swelling bruising.
  3. If you have on hand an anesthetic, is to give the victim (it can be any analgesic). It is advisable to clarify the victim has any allergies to medications.
  4. Only after you have ensured the peace, took the pain, proceed to the immobilization of the limb. Immobilization can be carried out using tyres or other improvised means.
  5. If the damage is upper limb you can use a scarf or bandage. The limb is suspended and fixed in a comfortable and painless position.
  6. While lower extremity injuries typically use the bus. In their absence you can apply the plywood, Board, branch. If you do not have available tools that you can use as splints healthy limb. You should know that when immobilization, in addition to fixing the damaged joint, is fixed adjacent the joints. Necessarily have to be fixed 1 and 2 joint top joint bottom. This provides a complete immobility of the damaged joint.
  7. After was given first aid for sprains, transporterowych the victim in the nearest medical institution. When joint dislocation upper limb, the victim may move independently. When joint dislocation lower limb transported lying down or sitting. Delay in hospitalization is not necessary, as fresh dislocations are easy to reposition.

What not to do when dislocation:

  1. Strictly prohibitedto try to reduce a dislocation. Excessive stretching of the limbs and improper technique reposition may lead to serious consequences.
  2. Do not be put off hospitalization. If you had provided timely emergency assistance in dislocation, then it is good, but still need time to carry out the reduction of the dislocation and give limbs physiological position. If time was not given the specialized medical care, in the future, it will require surgery. And that, as a rule, is considered a radical therapy.

The first aid for fractures

vidy vyviha plechevogo sustavaTechnique and sequence of assistance for fractures will depend on the nature of the injury and type of fracture. The tactics of the emergency care for closed and open fractures will be different, but, regardless of the type of fracture, the main point in the provision of emergency assistance will be immobilization of the injured extremity.

To prevent a painful shock, before applying the tires or other available tools on the damaged part, it is necessary to provide pain relief. For this purpose, a variety of analgesics (tablets or injections).

When immobilization of the limb should follow some rules:

  1. To the extent possible, to produce General anesthesia.
  2. Choose the bus according to the length of the limb. To do this, the size is removed with a healthy limb.
  3. Give limbs physiological position. This is important, as displaced debris can damage nearby vessels and nerves.
  4. Applying a splint on the injured limb, it should be remembered that the record needs at least two joints. In this case, damage of the upper limb, fixed two joints.
  5. If the damage of the lower limb fixation is required for all three joints. This ensures complete immobility of the limb.
  6. A splint is applied over the fabric or clothing.
  7. Immobilization should be done together. One man, gently lifting the limb does not move the wreckage, while the second, meanwhile, captures a splint to limb with bandages, belt or rope.
  8. The ends of the pins must be available for inspection, as the color of the skin is possible to estimate the condition of blood circulation of immobilisme limbs.

varianty vpravleniya vyviha plechevogo sustavaIf in a closed fracture occurs the growing bruise, it shows the damage to the vessel. In this case, you can use ice, or other sources of cold.

In open fracturesthe basic assistance is aimed at stopping bleeding, preventing infection of the wound and immobilization of the limb.

The procedure for emergency care for an open fracture:

  1. To assess the victim's condition and the extent of the damage, as this will depend on further tactics.
  2. With the aim of preventing traumatic shock to provide analgesia.
  3. If there is bleeding tourniquet above the wound. A tourniquet is placed over the fabric or clothing. Be sure to indicate the exact time the tourniquet was applied.
  4. Making sure there is no bleeding, you should treat the wound with antiseptic solutions. The wound should close an aseptic bandage. If the hand is not sterile coating material, any suitable clean cloth.
  5. After made sure the bleeding stopped, the wound surface is treated, proceed to the immobilization of the limb on the same principle as fractures.
  6. Transport the victim to a medical facility is the final stage in the provision of emergency assistance, especially if there is an open fracture, as in this case, the high risk of complications that require specialized and skilled medical care.


What not to do at the break:

  1. It is impossible to transport an injured person with a broken, not fixing the limb. Any extra movement can displace the bone fragments and thereby cause additional injury to the soft tissues and the neurovascular bundle.
  2. Do not attempt to straighten the bone fragments, as this can lead to serious consequences and exacerbate the situation.

Based on the above we can conclude

Understanding the seriousness of the injury and its consequences is an integral part in providing aid to the victims.


Knowledge of certain skills in emergency care and the ability to navigate and not get confused in these situations - to further guarantee a successful rehabilitation after the injury.