What is hip dislocation?
Hip dislocation is only 5% of people mainly after their involvement in an accident. This feature is due to the fact that the hip joint is surrounded by a large and powerful layer of muscles and ligaments. However, the cause of the injury could be a nasty fall.
In medicine dislocation of the hip joint is fixed in the displacement of the femoral head outside the acetabulum.
There are several types of hip dislocation:
This species occurs most frequently. Causes of sharp bending or turning the thigh inward.
This type installs in a few cases. The reason for the drop leg with its sharp diversion in direction. The femoral head moves down and breaks the joint capsule.
This pathology is fixed at the newborns, caused by an incorrect development of the fetus. If this is not treated immediately, the baby may be limp, and the hip will not function in full.
Symptoms of hip dislocation
There are some General symptoms, characteristic for different types of hip dislocation:
- the difficulty of relying on the injured leg;
- severe pain in the hip area;
- movement restrictions in the hip joint;
- specific (unusual) position of the feet depending on the type of dislocation;
- the groin, buttocks can nabuhat or appear swollen.
There are signs by which one can determine the offset of the femoral head.
The leg turned down, bent, shorter than the other leg. During the inspection of the groin area you can see the cavity, and the cheek is fixed to the ledge.
Patella rotated slightly, the foot is reserved. The injured limb is longer than the healthy, during the inspection of the groin clearly observed the bulge, and on the buttock depression.
Reminder for first aid for suspected hip dislocation
- Prohibited to try to reduce a dislocation.
It should only be performed by a specialist, as the consequences can be dire. As practice shows, the wrong first aid only increases the recovery period.
- Just need to call the ambulance.
- Because this injury has a strong pain, it is advisable to help the patient to anesthetizethe damaged area is.
For this you can use different types of analgesics, which are administered intramuscularly.
- Before the arrival of the ambulance can be locked with bus injured limb. It needs to be fixed in the position in which it is located.
- If you are not able to make a splint out of scrap materials, you need to tape the injured leg to a healthy, using the clothes of the victim.
- Preferably on the damaged joint apply ice or cold items.
Is forbidden to transport the victim. Only in case of impossibility of arrival of the ambulance you can take this step.
How is the treatment and prevention of hip dislocation in children and adults
As soon as the patient will be taken to the hospital, he immediately made an x-ray study, which confirms the presumptive diagnosis and identifies the type of injury. Be sure the doctors are watching, what other possible contributing diagnoses after injuries. Very often, the dislocation is accompanied by rupture of the tissues of the muscles or fractures.
If after inspection it is established that the dislocation has no complications, that the patient immediately transferred to the operating room. The whole procedure of reduction is carried out only under General anesthesia with the introduction of funds, relaxing the muscles of the legs.
The doctor performs the reduction of the hip in the opposite direction to the injury.
If happens that the patient is not contacted within 12 hours of qualified help, doctors use two methods to remedy the situation.
- Reduction by Kocher.
The victim is placed on a floor or operating table and do General anesthesia. Assistant surgeon with his hands securely locks the pelvis of the patient. At this time, the surgeon begins to bend the leg at a right angle at the knee and hip joint. Then raise the leg up and turn inside. After obtaining the result should be a strong click.
- Reduction of Janelidze.
The use of this method involves the initial introduction of the victim into a deep sleep using General anesthesia. Once the doctor notes that the patient is in this state, it is put on the operating table head down. An injured leg is left to hang down. Under the basin placed a few bags of sand. Assistant surgeon with his own hands locks the sacrum of the patient. The surgeon begins to gradually bend the leg at the knee joint. My knee doctor presses down on the knee of the victim and at the same time produces a turning of the foot outward. As soon as the thighis in place, there is a specific and distinct click.
Once all the procedures performed, the repeated x-ray examination to confirm the correctness of the manipulation. With regard to neck of femur, if it was in place, carry out the following activities:
- Starting from the waist and ending with the tips of his fingers put into a cast. He needs to fix all three joints of the legs.
- If the long-term fixation of the limb, then the patient is placed on the hood.
- Full recovery lasts at least 3 months.
Features of treatment
- Treatment using prosthesis.
If all therapeutic measures do not bring significant relief to the patient or the thigh becomes in place, the surgeons propose to use a prosthesis. Today, medicine is able to replace not only the joint but also to implant its various parts. Many patients say, a full hip replacement returns them to normal life and physical activity.
- Central dislocation of the hip.
This type of injury is today considered the most difficult. The costs of this diagnosis the doctors say about the full offset head bedranol bones in the pelvic region and on the fragmentation of the bone of the acetabulum. In this dislocation of the hip treatment requires a full course.
In General, the basis for the treatment of this supposed double skeletal tension. On the injured leg is attached via spokes cargo within 6-12 kg. the procedure of traction will last at least 2.5 months.
- Treatment of congenital dislocation in children.
Diagnosis and treatment of hip dislocation in children does orthodontist.
Modern methods of treatment enable to perform accurate diagnosis of the injury, the degree of difficulty. All therapeutic measures will affect the normalization of blood circulation in the hip joint, the imposition of special tires-spacers will help to immobilize the injured leg in various positions to allow the joint to return to the place.
It is very important for the newborn with a dislocated hip to do medical gymnastics and massage. They help the formation of the hip joint, and restore its shape. The hip joint and the muscle will be able to develop and function properly.
- Rehabilitation of adults after treatment.
All rehabilitation measures will be carried out at least 2 months, so you need patience and perseverance, as this period will allow you to completely restore the motoractivity of the limb.
Massage helps to improve blood circulation in the injured limb, to reduce pain and stimulate muscles to work, which is very important after long lying in one position.
Using physical therapy, you will be able to remove the swelling and reduce pain. As for physical therapy, then it is possible to start even when following bed rest. There are developed a set of passive gymnastics, which allow for a gradual return of muscle tone.
Hip dislocation is a serious diagnosis. If you were faced with him in your life, remember: only timely and qualified assistance to avoid complications and give an opportunity to return to a normal, active life.