Signs of dislocation of the knee joint and treatment at home
Many people are faced with an injury like a dislocation of the knee joint, the treatment at home which also gives positive results. But is it possible not to go to the doctor and to self-medicate? It's quite a serious injury.
We all know what the knee, but not everyone can explain it anatomically. This is the joint that connects the femur and the tibia, and the patella.
Patella, normally called the kneecap, is located in front of the joint. It is connected to a special tendon from the quadriceps muscle of the thigh. It is this tendon in its continuation and is a ligament of the patella. In addition to the ligamentous apparatus of the joint are the cruciate and lateral ligaments. The first is located in the joint cavity. They are divided into front (stabilizing the joint, giving the tibia excessively forward) and the rear ligament (also stabilize the joint and do not allow the tibia to move backwards).
The joint surfaces are covered with cartilage. The joint is in the articular capsule.
Due to its structure, the knee joint of the person can stretch and bend, and if it is in the folded state, and even rotate around its axis.
Sprain, its symptoms
Under the dislocation of the knee, you should understand a condition in which the bones begin to take not a natural position relative to each other and thus preserve its integrity. Such a situation can be observed when there is severe damage to ligaments.
Traditionally, the dislocation of this joint is divided into different types according to several characteristics. Thus, according to etiological basis there are dislocations:
- traumatic - due to develop a serious trauma to the joint, mechanical nature. They are closed and open. The latter is much more dangerous, they are harder to treat, there is also a large risk of complications. Open dislocation is wound near the joint;
- the usual - these dislocations occur most often in the case of too early abandonment of immobilization of the injured limb after its reduction. Manifested in the form of recurrent dislocation, emerging from the slightest trauma to the joint;
- congenital abnormalities associated with fetal development or trauma during birth. Often require surgical intervention at an early age;
- pathological - are the result of degenerative or other pathological processes in the joint.
According to a time criterion to distinguish old, stale and fresh dislocations. The first considered aftermonths, the second over three days, and still others less than three days from the moment of injury.
A dislocated joint is divided into:
- full - the articular surfaces are completely inconsistent;
- incomplete - between the joint surfaces remains partial contact. It is also called subluxation.
The symptoms for this injury include the following:
- severe pain in the knee;
- around the joint edema;
- as a result of trauma to the joint can not function correctly;
- it is impossible to bend and straighten it, it gives pain, he does not listen;
- there has been a violation of its configuration. In other words, it is clear that he acquired a different, non-natural form;
- there may be bruising around the joint. Or an open wound.
The pain may not subside for a very long time after reduction of the dislocation. The exact timing depends on each specific case.
Complications of trauma
In some cases dislocation of the knee may be complicated by additional injuries or complications develop later, due to the above premature immobilization or inappropriate treatment.
So, hypotrophy and atrophy of muscles develop due to inactivity. Complications of functional character appear as a result of inactivity, immobilization, early active motion of the foot and a number of other reasons.
Disorders of hemodynamic in nature for this injury is associated most often with impaired microcirculation, but in some cases they appear damage to the joints of larger size. Sometimes trophic disorders are the result of injury of nerve trunks. But it is much more often affected by disorders of blood supply to the tissue.
Among the severe complications of this injury one of the most serious is the damage to nerves and blood vessels located near the joint.
In some cases, dislocation of the joints is complicated by fractures or cracks in the bones.
The presence of complications often require surgical intervention and long-term treatment, often in hospital.
Diagnosis and treatment
To determine the presence of joint dislocation allows visual inspection of the characteristic symptoms described above. The doctor may order additional testing, including radiography, arteriography, Doppler ultrasound, pulsometrija joint; to conduct a neurological examination. Based on the data collected, it decides on the reduction of the dislocation.
But before hisright, still need to get to him. With such an injury is very problematic. In addition, you cannot waste precious time, because the longer the foot is not immobilized, the more likely it is to cause additional damage to the joint.
So first is first aid. They should be applied immediately after damage of the knee. You should not attempt to change the position of the limb, but it is important to make it stationary. After this you need to call an ambulance or independently deliver the victim to the hospital.
You should immediately apply cold to the joint, this will not only help to reduce the pain, but will not allow the edema and hematoma to grow strongly. Fit a hot water bottle with cold water or an ice pack. Not superfluous will be taking pain medication non-steroidal nature: analgin, aspirin, Ketorolac, etc. Be attentive to the contraindications, do not take medications that can cause additional problems for the victim.
This primary treatment of the dislocation in the home ends. And it is the turn of working professionals. After diagnosis the doctor the traumatologist produces a reduction of dislocation. Do not attempt to straighten it at home. Wrong reduction can only worsen the condition of the joint.
The very reduction is the process of recovery ratios of the bones of the joint, which is produced by holding the bone the opposite way relative to that which it held in dislocation.
For the treatment of patellar dislocation is applied puncture of the knee joint and removal of the blood that had accumulated in the cavity. This operation can be performed many times. The knee joint is placed a cold compress on top of which is placed a plaster cast.
Surgeon may be needed if:
- due to injury was a torn tendon and ligament;
- in case of habitual dislocation, the consequence of which was the formation of a false joint;
- when manual reduction is physically impossible.
Treatment at home
After reposition of the joint and with the positive dynamics and further treatment can be conducted not only in hospitals but at home. It is based on rest and special medical gymnastics. In addition, required to wear a special knee splint.
There are a number of folk methods to facilitate and accelerate the healing process.
Apply milk compresses made from gauze soaked in hot milk and applied to the knee.
Slurry-basedonion or sage are also considered effective tools that will help to speed up healing. Onion finely ground and mixed in a proportion of 1/10 with sugar is applied on the injury. Similarly, with wormwood, only it sugar not added.
The infusion of propolis in vodka helps in the treatment. Them moistened gauze and applied as a compress.
For rubbing apply the grated garlic in the amount of two or three heads. Then add some vinegar, preferably Apple, although some recommend grape. The means must stand at least 5, better 6 days. Then it can be rubbed into the injured area twice a day.
In the treatment of the dislocated knee at home in any case, you should follow the doctor's instructions.
Only in this way guarantee a rapid recovery and the absence of any complications.