Causes of dislocation of hand and treatment
Among the known medical injuries, dislocation of the hand is most common. The joints of the hands do a lot of movements, but it is very vulnerable. Quite often dislocation of the hand is indirect. To obtain such a kind of damage one falling on an outstretched hand, resulting bursts the capsule bone (humerus), and shifted to the joints. When such injury is greatly reduced mobility of the upper limb.
The reasons for dislocation of upper extremities
So many factors can cause dislocation of the arms. One of the most common is excess of movement, so this damage is often found in children. This pathology is observed in 12% of patients accessing professionals who have lost their hands. The disease is called joint hypermobility. The appearance of the rear of the dislocations contributes to highly inclined or malovmestitelnye glenoid cavity. There are more cases of dislocation of hand and hypoplasia of the basin that hosts the Charter.
Most often at risk of fall, professional athletes, or people engaged in dancing. The reason is the execution of repetitive movements that repeatedly stretch the joint capsule and ligaments.
People with excessive range of motion, the experts call this pathology generalized hypermobility are common patients trauma points. Cause of dislocation in this category of residents is a congenital abnormality of the structure of the joints. In this case, specialists recommend patients to avoid active sports.
Signs of dislocation of upper extremities
Symptoms of luxation of the hand can be quite different, as a rule, they are accompanied by pain with any movement of the upper limb and deformity of the shoulder.
In the first minutes after dislocation of the limb occurs piercing pain, especially if the deformity of the joint occurred for the first time. At occurrence of re-sprains pain mild. The presence of pain indicates excessive tension of the joint capsule, bruises of the muscles, which are located in the nerve endings.
Movement of the shoulder in the presence of a dislocation becomes impossible. If hand movement is performed with assistance, the patient may experience a springy resistance to the muscles. Doctors attribute this to displacement and loss of their function surfaces of the joint. Elastic resistance is a consequence of the tension of the intact ligaments.
Another symptomdislocation of the hand is the presence of asymmetry in the shoulder area. With the damaged side there is flattening of the joint, as well as a noticeable protrusion, which is formed by the clavicle.
The asymmetry of the shoulder occurs and edema. It appears due to anti-inflammatory substances that help to penetrate the plasma in the intercellular space. Edema may occur when compression of the axillary vein and other large vessels. This is a manifestation of dislocation may be the main cause pastoznost, and if it evolved due to the reactive inflammatory response, the patient may experience a slight tingling in the upper extremity. Why doctors do not recommend to impose a tight bandage until the swelling come down.
Today experts distinguish several types of dislocations. The differences between them are determined by the space displacement of the humerus. Set the shape of the dislocation, it can be based on indirect signs present in a patient.
For anterior dislocations of the upper limbs peculiar to the allotted position of the shoulder. Shoulder injury is very different from a healthy joint, and has an angular outline, and the head of the displaced bone can be easily felt under the clavicle or the coracoid process. The patient in this type of dislocation can not make internal rotation to move the shoulder and touch the opposite side of the body.
Rear view of the dislocation of the typical angular contour of the shoulder visible to the naked eye, the coracoid process, which is strongly protruding outwards. To find the humerus in a patient may be behind the acromion. Sprained hand, with this type of injury, is unable to perform rotating actions.
For the lower forms of dislocation of the hand characterized by the location of the forearm above the head, the arm remains in a bent position. To palpate the head of the bone in the axilla.
Diagnosis of dislocation
For accurate diagnosis, the patient must undergo a series of diagnostic procedures that help to detect comorbidities. In this case, doctors can use CT scans, x-rays, MRI and investigation with ultrasound.
Radiography is performed on the patients to determine the type of dislocation. Spending reposition the hands without radiographs is prohibited. This method allows to obtain an accurate picture of the structure of the shoulder, on the basis of which experts can determine the degree of displacement of bone tissue of the shoulder.
Procedure CT helps to study bone tissue in layers, as well as set the location of the head bone, to determine the presence of fractures.
MRI allows to obtain very accurate pictures of ligaments, cartilage, joints,vessels. Ultrasound assigned to the patient when there is suspicion for the presence of blood in the joint cavity.
Treatment of dislocation of hand
Before proceeding to the reposition of the joint of the shoulder, doctors inject the patient with painkillers.
Depending on the complexity of the dislocation, the procedure reposition of the hand can be performed under General or local anesthesia.
There are many techniques of reduction of dislocation of hand. They are classified by experts as a shock, a lever and physiological. In practice, these types of rectification are combined.
After reduction of the displaced joint, the arm is immobilized with a splint from plaster. Hand you want to limit any movements of 2.5 - 3 weeks. After the plaster is removed, experts recommend to go through patient rehabilitation, which restores joint flexibility, and reduce the risk of recurrent dislocations. Rehabilitation includes massage, exercises, muscle stimulation and water exercises.
Reduction of the joints - this is the basic method of treatment of dislocations of the upper limbs. This procedure can be carried out only by qualified doctors. The only thing that can help a person is to immediately contact the clinic, especially if this is the first dislocation.
Tighten visit to the doctor is impossible. If a medical intervention is conducted in a timely manner, there is the likelihood of complications. They are expressed by the contraction of the muscles that as a result complicates the reduction of the dislocation. In this case, only the use of anesthesia is not enough. Additionally, the patient's body are special drugs (muscle relaxants), the task of which consists in relaxation of the muscles. If this manipulation did not yield a positive result, the patient begins to prepare for the operational intervention.
After surgery continues treatment based on the immobilization of a dislocated limb. This treatment promotes coalescing of torn ligaments, and bones. At this stage there are dressing plaster for up to 3 weeks.
Physiotherapy for sprains of the hand
To heal damage in this way, it is possible using a number of procedures, which help to create a muscular frame. Positive results give courses of paraffin and electrophoresis. All the above treatments are quite effective, but have an age limit. If the patient is a little over 70, physiotherapy is not applied.
Considering the seriousness of the disease, in any case can not attempt to straighten a dislocated joint hands yourself, it is fraught with aggravation of the situation, as there is a greater risk of injury capsulesjoint, education, stretching and tearing the muscle, blood vessels and nerve endings. To implement such a procedure can only highly qualified specialists at a specially equipped medical facility.
Also, the patient should not forget that the reduction of a dislocated limb should be carried out no later than 2-3 days after an injury. If these nuances are ignored, the joints will atrophy and lose their original functions.