How to heal a compression fracture of the spine
Compression fracture of the spine is one of the most frequent injuries, when there is compression of 1 or more vertebrae. Compression fractures are very serious injuries, because when they gets damage column of the spine and may suffer spinal cord.
Description of the disease
The spine of any man has 32-34 vertebrae. They are connected to each other by ligaments, and cartilage tissue, and in some places can grow together. The spine is divided into 5 major departments. The neck structure is composed of 7 vertebrae. Thoracic has 12 pieces of bones. The length of the lumbar and sacral formations is at the 5 vertebrae. The coccyx is composed of 3-5 fused bones.
Each of these vertebral structures consists of the arc (exited processes: 2 transverse, spinous, 4 articular) and the main body. Curved rearward facing and the core structure is found. Located one above the other openings in the vertebrae form the main canal, where the spinal cord is located.
There are 3 types of damage in which there is a fracture of the spine compression type:
- When directed along the spine excessive load or when a sudden flexion of the body upon impact in the region of 12 vertebrae in the thoracic or lumbosacral region. Very often the impact and the bending is accompanied by rotation of the spinal column.
- When you strike the coccyx during a fall, a jump from a great height, in a road accident during production activities.
- In the result of osteoporosis. Decreases the density structure of the vertebrae themselves, which leads to increase the possibility of their being crushed. Because of this disease, many older people (especially women), you receive a compression fracture of the vertebrae.
Separate spinal bones taking the shape of a wedge when viewed from the side, and significantly reduced height of the vertebrae.
Classified as compression injuries
Doctors distinguish different degrees of disease development:
- In the first stage, the height of vertebral structures is reduced to 1/3.
- During the second period is affected to ½ of vertebra.
- At high rates of reduction of height of the vertebrae doctors ascertain third degree of the disease.
The location of the fracture there are the following types of injuries:
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- Compression fracture of the lumbar spine.
- Similar damage to the thoracic vertebrae.
- Such injury to the cervical spine.
- Fracture of a vertebra in sacral portion.
- Compression damage to the vertebrae in the coccyx.
For all types of such injuries, a shift in the vertebral bones relative to each other. During this process necessarily occurs curvature of the canal of the vertebral column, while the injured spinal cord. This leads to numbness of the limbs and can cause paralysis. Along with these clamped nerves, causing sciatica post-traumatic type. This usually happens in fractures of the lumbar vertebra.
If the injury has occurred stretching of the vertebral structures, it is possible to develop decompression of fracture of the spine. Symptoms it almost coincides with the compression type of the disease, but the nerve endings in the spinal cord are damaged to a greater extent, which may lead to paralysis of arms and legs.
Symptoms of compression fractures of the spine
The main symptoms of a fracture of this type the following:
- Severe pain in the back.
- If a person received a compression fracture of the thoracic spine or similar lesion of the lumbar part, possible breathing difficulties.
- Pain from the back can move on the stomach.
- They are amplified, if the patient is standing or driving, and decrease in the supine position.
- The patient feels a headache.
- Possible nausea and vomiting.
- Numbness occurs the lower and upper limbs of the patient, there is a weakness. This happens when damaged nerve structures in the spinal column.
- Torso twists after compression fracture very difficult.
- The patient has constant tension of the muscles on the back.
- The growth of the sick person is reduced regardless of the cause of damage.
- The victim sometimes there is a hump, but in most cases the patient has an unnatural curve in the back.
Pain syndrome increases gradually as the destruction of the vertebra. If after the injury of a person has developed severe compression fracture of a vertebra, sometimes the posterior part can be displaced into the spinal canal. It is a violation of the functioning of the spinal cord.
Most people in the first months of the disease despite the initial symptoms of the disease, do not go for help to medical institutions and come back onlyafter starting numbness. This seriously complicates the healing process.
Diagnosis of disease
The patient is examined by a traumatologist. Then the patient is sent for x-rays in two projections the spine. This method determines the location of the fractured vertebra and the severity of the injury. However, for specification of the diagnosis can be applied to magnetic resonance or computed tomography. The first method is used if you suspect damage of nerve endings of the spinal column. This gives you the opportunity to determine the degree of involvement in the pathological process located near the damaged area of the various structures and tissues.
If the patient is a woman aged (over 50 years), it is sent to a densitometry to check for the possible presence of her osteoporosis.
For accurate assessment the spinal cord doctors use miloslavichski method. Perhaps the patient will be sent to neurological examination to clarify the functions of the spinal cord, nerves in the periphery and other nerve endings. After collecting all data, the exact diagnosis, and outlines treatment methods.
Treatment of compression fractures of the spine
This process takes a long time. If the patient has uncomplicated type of the disease, then treat it doctors start with conservative methods. For this patient prescribed pain medication and sent to special courses of physiotherapy that strengthens both muscle and restores flexibility of the spine. X-rays of the patient is carried out monthly to monitor the progress of the cure.
Doctors can apply a relatively new method vertebroplasty. It is the introduction of a special cement composition into the damaged vertebral bone through small slits on the skin of the patient. It strengthens the vertebrae and does not allow them to be destroyed.
To compensate and restore the desired height of the damaged structures the patient is injected chamber deflated. Inflate them, adjusting until the desired size of the vertebra, and then fixed with a special cement.
Patient provide a special bed, which should be any inclination and be tough. He prescribed a sedentary lifestyle for the period of the cure and allowed to stand for a short period of time. After 1-2 months the victim is prescribed a course of physiotherapy and massage. Prescribed 30-60 days to weara special kind of corset, which supports the spinal column of the patient in the desired position. The exact implementation of all recommendations of the trauma surgeon and other specialists the person returns to normal life after 6 months.
Compression fracture treatment of folk remedies is to eliminate pain during the recovery period and rehabilitation of the patient. For this you can use the following recipes:
- Shilajit interfere with oil of roses, and this mixture is gently rubbed into the area of injury.
- You can make an ointment of turpentine pine. To do this on a grater with small holes grind the onion and add to it 0.02 kg of freshly collected resin, 15 g of copper sulfate, 0.05 kg of olive oil. All this is mixed in the ladle of metal and hold it over a fire until boiling. The mixture is then cooled and rubbed at the sore spot.
The patient can be offered a diet of large quantities of boiled fish, nuts, milk, persimmon. It is possible to give broth hips, fresh herbs, cauliflower and olives. The bread should be made of bran. You can eat radish, black currant.
Surgical surgery for compression fractures
The indications for surgery are:
- The presence of debris, which damaged vertebrae.
- Unstable damage, which accompany the dislocations.
- Wedge of deformed bones.
- The injury, which begins to break down the front wall of the spinal canal.
Removes fragments, and internal fixation using implants made of metal. After that, the patient is sent to rehabilitation. It is carried out with use of methods of physiotherapy: ultrasonic irradiation, UHF, electrophoresis. Then prescribe a course of physical therapy.
After the surgery may develop various complications. They can cause such phenomena:
- The instability segments.
- Cigarettesa deformation effects.
- Neurological damage.
When reducing the height of the vertebral bones on more than 1/3 can manifest segmental instability, which leads to dystrophic and degenerative processes in the spinal column.
Kyphosis most often affected women over the age of 50 years suffering from osteoporosis. As a result of this disease patient formed a hump. They have severe pain and can hurt the lungs, internal organs, and cardiac muscle.
This will lead to the development of shortness of breath, indigestion and feeling increased fatigue.
In fractures, the debris can shift and compress the nerve roots and the cord itselfthe brain, the channel is narrowed. It can be damaged blood vessels in the area of the fracture. This will lead to numbness and pain.
Prevention of the disease
For these purposes it is necessary to cure osteoporosis and strengthen the bones. It is necessary to take supplements rich in calcium, consuming vitamin D, physical activity. There are medicines that stop or slow down osteoporosis:
- “Actonel”, “Fosamax”, “Boniva”. This biphosphate that slows bone loss and improves density. Help fight fractures. But they can contribute to osteonecrosis of the jaw bones, although the risk of this happening is extremely low. They cannot take the people with cancer. Do not want to use these drugs intravenously. Can manifest phenomena such as numbness of the limbs.
- Hormones “Miacalcin or Calcimar”. Improve control of the level of calcium in the blood plasma of a person, contribute to the formation of bone structures, producing an analgesic effect.
- Synthetic means“, Forteo”. Used in the form of injections. Well affects bone growth and reduces the risk of vertebral fracture in women who suffer from osteoporosis.
- “Evista”. Is used to increase bone thickness and slow the loss of their mass.
For the right selection of the right medication have to undergo an examination and consultation at the attending physician. The independent use of the above drugs may lead to dangerous consequences.
In any case, the injury on the spine, it is better to go to a medical facility. This will allow time to take the necessary measures, will not let the disease develop in full force. Timely treatment to the doctor will completely cure the disease.