What is an ankle fracture?
From injury no one is immune. But among all damage is considered to be one of the most dangerous fracture of the ankle. The bone in this place is thin, but ligamentous apparatus is strong enough, as it is ankle joint has to withstand the severity of the human body load when walking. In fractures of the ankle suffer from one or several bones and the main function of this hinge joint: movement of the foot. Healthy ankle is the key to good posture and an attractive gait.
Ankle fracture: classification
Such damage is often confused with sprains, based on the similarity of symptoms. Sometimes incorrect diagnosis can lead to certain complications. When such fractures can disrupt the main functions of the ankle:
- The movement of the foot in different directions.
To avoid this, the victim requires immediate treatment for qualified medical help.
Fractures of the ankle are divided into several groups:
- without displacement;
- complicated dislocations.
Most minor injuries are uncomplicated closed fractures without displacement of bone fragments.
Fracture of the talus is a rather complex case, since disturbed blood supply.
Open wounds are accompanied by severe pain blood loss and shock. Happen damage the fibula and internal malleolus, fragments of which can damage tissue and skin. These injuries require a long recovery period.
Symptoms of damage to the ankle
When such injuries symptoms appear almost immediately and in full. Especially if there was a fracture with displacement of bone. Open fracture of the ankle also cannot go unnoticed is accompanied by pain and shock, excessive bleeding, tissue damage and visible deformity of bone structure.
Common symptoms of ankle fracture:
- strong pain syndrome;
- considerable hyperemia and hematoma at the injury site;
- I can't move the point of support on the injured leg;
- movement in the ankle is severely restricted;
- deformity of the affected joint areas;
- improve overall body temperature.
It is important to give first aid, without trying yourself to fix the broken bone, and as soon as possible to sendthe patient in trauma.
First aid for broken ankle
Immobilize the injured limb is the primary task that must be completed to avoid additional damage and increase in pain. For immobilization, use of boards, splints, and other devices.
In an extreme case, the affected leg can be fixed with the help of a healthy limb. You should definitely take away a person shoes.
With an open fracture of the ankle is vital to stop the bleeding. To do this, apply a tourniquet above the wound area and treat the injury with an antiseptic.
To relieve the symptoms of pain shock it is necessary to offer the victim a painkiller and soothe him by feeding him warm tea, and then as quickly as possible to transport him to the nearest clinic or to wait for the arrival of the ambulance.
Visual-tactile examination and questioning of the victim is not able to give a complete picture of the disease, so without further research is not enough. In such cases, the compulsory x-ray of the ligaments and bone joints, which will reveal the severity and extensiveness of the damage. In some cases, the doctor decides about the use of MRI as an instrumental method of diagnosis of fractures of the ankle.
Causes and treatment of fractures of the ankle articular apparatus
Causes of fractures are obvious: targeted strikes, a bad fall and landing, injuries associated with mechanical injuries and jumping, playing sports with a high risk of injury.
Therapy used in the treatment of ankle, is divided into clinical and operational. Depending on the type of fracture, complications and the time it took for the patient to apply for assistance will be selected the necessary treatment.
Clinical therapy in open fractures with displacement involves a trauma surgeon repositions the bone, under General or local anesthesia, followed by stitching the wound and plaster.
If the fracture of the joint is closed and is not complicated, doctors are limited to the imposition of a plaster bandage.
Operational the way a doctor chooses if it is impossible to put fragments of bone together, a meniscus or blood vessels. Then there is the necessity of using special devices, such as implants and mechanical parts. During surgical intervention, produce fixation of the damaged bone or replace them with suitable implants. Dying tissue at the sameremoved.
In complicated fractures of the ankle the patient long enough to have to wear a cast.
Therefore it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the patient limb. Especially if there are such feelings, as:
- pain discomfort;
- loss of sensitivity;
- various paresthesias (tingling, crawling feeling).
In this case, you should immediately inform the doctor about their condition, as this could be the beginning of tissue necrosis.
Most likely, you will need to cut the bandage and to take measures for the prevention of cell death.
Memo to the victim. Untimely appeal for help, wrong diagnosis or inadequate rehabilitation can lead to disastrous consequences: infections, osteoarthritis of the ankle and even to disability.
Rehabilitation in the posttraumatic period
The main tenets of recovery after injury is consistency and gradualism. Mainly used methods of physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and massage. Also in the rehabilitation period to avoid excessive load on the joint is recommended to use tools for mobility (crutches).
Physical therapy places great emphasis upon rehabilitation, especially in the postoperative period. Well-chosen instructor exercises improve muscle tone and blood vessels, increase endurance, increase the power capability of the joint and allow to gradually restore lost function to the ankle.
A standard set of recovery exercise includes:
- Movement first your toes and then ankle in the sitting position.
- Footwork criss-cross ("scissors").
- Rolling the ball with the feet.
- Squat on their toes and walking on heels.
Regular massage can give the sensitivity of the damaged area, normalize blood circulation and lymph flow, reduce the degree of muscle tension.
How to avoid unpleasant consequences?
In addition to careful behavior, you need to watch the diet, including vitamins and foods calcium.
This will greatly strengthen the bone tissue. Calcium in large quantities is found in dairy and fish products, vegetables such as cauliflower, persimmon and nuts, and also soy and legumes.
Not least in the prevention of injuries is the wearing of comfortable, quality footwear, it is advisable to go low.
To the bone is recovered, and fusionfragments of the joint has occurred correctly, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions of trauma, then the forecast will be favorable and the injury will not remain even a trace.