What should be the first aid for hip fracture?
When hip fracture first aid must be provided quickly and competently. From the correctly executed actions and knowledge may depend not only on human health but their whole life.
The hip bone, the thickest bone in humans, but the fractures in this location happen very often, especially in older people (even in mild injuries). Young people this injury can get a mostly-serious incidents: fall from height, road traffic accident, occupational injury, professional sport.
A large part of the fractures takes place with displacement of fragments, injury of major blood vessels, muscles or nerve. When such complications develop swelling, blood clots, which can lead, for example, to gangrene. With these injuries, the patient often comes as a shock.
The signs of fracture of the femur:
- pronounced and aggravated by movement pain in the hip or joint;
- the movement of the legs, thighs virtually impossible;
- the transformation of the shape of the femur, it is shortened;
- loss of sensation in other parts of the feet.
Proper assistance in case of various fractures
The first thing to do is to put the victim on his back and using the tires to fix the broken limb, to prevent unnecessary movements. This injury is very serious. A person loses up to 1.5 l of blood, if the fracture is closed. If the blood loss was substantial, it is important to do a blood transfusion. To facilitate and reduce the pain you can apply ice or another cold object, offer pain pills (analgin) or water. Additional supply of the affected resources, impact on the cardiovascular system. Sometimes the person may complain of chills. In this case, you should cover him up with clothes.
In the case when the victim has an open fracture (skin is broken, one can see the soft tissue and the bone itself), it is necessary with iodine or alcohol to disinfect urgently the surface of the fracture and apply a tourniquet, to prevent the infection of the body. Necessarily this should be done before the arrival of ambulance crews to man lost consciousness or died. It is necessary to know that the wiring don't have long to pinch the limb affected, or may come its necrosis.
It happens that there is no way to summon medical assistance. In this case, it is necessary to make the patient tire from scrap materials (boards, cardboard, twigs) and immediately take him to the nearest medical facility,the emergency room. To correctly splint, it is important to know the following:
- The bus must be applied above and below on two or more healthy joint. The ideal option is to splint for hip, knee and ankle joints.
- Before carrying out the splinting of the fracture, you need to put some cloth or gauze.
- The splint is applied so that it is firmly and securely held in broken limbs, moving with a careless movement or transportation of the patient.
First aid in case of femoral fracture is immobilization (creation of stationary conditions, the bruised area of the body for various injuries: bruises, sprains, fractures). "Immobilization" of the injured limb prevents and protects from re-fracture, pain additional damage tissues or blood vessels.
The rules of the splint
"Immobilization" of the patient is performed using a bus Diterihs or pneumatic tyres. Under no circumstances it is impossible to return the foot in the correct position so as not to lead the patient to a painful shock, or violation of the integrity of the adjacent muscles. This work is done only by experienced professionals in a medical facility. Because of the tires the infection becomes unlikely, decreases pain syndrome.
"Immobilization" of the entire limb is carried out by overlaying the 4 flights of tires, which are wrapped in a big layer of cotton wool and bandages. The size of the tires should be about 120 cm In a pinch you can use 3 tyres. First bus need to bend the outline of the back plane of the thigh and the leg and foot. Additionally to form a special recess for the muscles of the calf and heel.
The foot should be left slightly bent in the knee joint.
To secure the foot the lower end of the bus form the right angle (in the form of the letter "G").
The tire must not only embrace the whole foot, but a few inches to go beyond the fingertips of the limb. The remaining 2 tires linked together. The edges are folded to 20 cm in the same G-shape from the bottom end.
The extended bus must be applied to the surface of the body from top to foot, starting with the armpit.
The surface of the curved portion provides fixation of the foot, covering it on top of the previously imposed bus. The last bus should be used for the inner plane of the thigh.
It is necessary to give a l-shaped form and put foot on top of the previous side of the tire. After all the tireswas imposed, they need to firmly compress bandages.
The transported man
After splinting, you are ready to transport the victim. Patient transport in a car or ambulance passes carefully to avoid fracture with displacement, and always on a hard stretcher. Incorrect handling may lead to serious consequences.
After the patient was taken to a medical facility, first aid hip fracture is the input of local anesthesia. In hospital the victim will do x-rays of the hips and do the inspection. Further treatment of the patient and medical care depend on extent of fracture, complications and the General condition of the victim.
Complete healing comes only six months because this fracture is considered the most difficult and dangerous. In older people the period of treatment lasts longer, deteriorating health, there are additional diseases as pneumonia, pressure ulcers, thromboembolism. All of these complications often lead to death of the patient.