For some reason, there is a rupture of the cruciate ligament of the knee and its treatment
To treat rupture of the cruciate ligament of the knee is difficult enough, but the important role played by the timely diagnosis of the injury. People faced with a similar problem, you must know the main symptoms, methods of treatment and recovery.
The cause of the injury
These knee ligaments perform a holding function, preventing the displacement of the tibia. Cruciate ligament ensures the correct movement of the knee, as it is in the center of the knee joint. The injured ligament is detached from the place where it attaches to the bone. Can be complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament or a partial, less damaged rear ligament, sometimes detached fragment of bone. Most often, the injury occurs when there is a strong impact on the back of the joint. This may be the mechanical influence from the outside, or just a sudden movement.
In some cases, the cruciate ligaments can occur when exposed to the thigh. There are many cases of torn knee ligaments during sudden braking or falling from a great height on straight leg.
After the injury, the knee cannot function normally, impaired stability and sustainability provisions. Such injuries are often disrupted other parts of the knee, including the meniscus. If, after the accident the most part of fibers arranged randomly, it is a Subtotal break. More prone to injury such women because of the peculiarities of the structure of the body.
If a person has received this injury, he required first aid, which is to fix the injured joint, taking analgesic for pain relief. Do not try to move the injured leg, bend your knee or rotate it as this can make a partial rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament full. If you can not immediately bring the victim to the hospital, it is necessary to apply cold to the foot the first day. Need a splint on the damaged leg to limit mobility. It is very dangerous to heat the leg to try to force the joint back on their own. This can be done only by a specialist after a thorough examination and accurate diagnosis.
Symptoms and diagnosis
There are three main degrees of ligament rupture:
- micro-gap, accompanied by pain in the knee, limitation of motion and slight swelling;
- second degree is similar to the firstby the symptoms, but it often occurs repeatedly in connection with the reduced elasticity of tissue, ligament wears out, so the trauma may occur during normal movements;
- the most severe is the third degree, which is characterized by a complete rupture of the cruciate ligaments of the knee, severe pain, limited movements.
In the third degree of damage to the ligaments of the person can not fully use the injured leg.Can occur simultaneously with different degrees of discontinuities when, for example, two torn ligaments, cruciate or lateral. With such a damaged person cannot rely on a limb, it's hard to keep a stable position. The first symptom that delivers a lot of inconvenience, is pain that may be accompanied by edema. A man with an injured cruciate ligament can't move your knee, feels the instability and severe discomfort. Quite often, the signs of rupture can be confused with other injuries, such as bruise, sprain, dislocation.
To avoid wrong treatment should consult a doctor if any of these symptoms to diagnosis was accurate and treatment is correct.
First the doctor conducts a conversation with the victim to establish the cause of the symptoms. After that the doctor can check the condition of the ligaments with displacement of the tibia, as in the presence of rupture of the tibia will visibly shift forward. It is important to go to the hospital immediately after he ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament, as after some time the old broken joint overgrown fatty tissue that helps to fix the knee, then the diagnosis becomes more difficult. The doctor may use arthroscopy, that is the inner study of the joint by means of the probe. An easy way of diagnosis is an x-ray, it is possible to make a computer or magnetic resonance tomography, but these procedures are quite expensive.
Treatment of torn ligaments
The first stage of therapeutic measures should be puncture, which allows to eliminate blood fluid from the joint. For pain relief used novocaine or other means. When the doctor establishes the integrity of the meniscus, complete motor functions, he puts a plaster cast on a slightly bent knee and the surrounding area of the foot.
You usually need to wear a bandage for about a month. Patient no need to go to the hospital withsuch a trauma, after removal of plaster is required to go through a special rehabilitation facilities, which include massage, physiotherapy and physiotherapy. The conservative method as physiotherapy treatment can be applied electromyostimulation, phonophoresis and other procedures which must be performed without breaks of about 10 days. To physical therapy can begin only after the relief of pain, swelling.
If these symptoms disappear, the joint is ready to receive small loads, but you should listen to your body during exercise, and the feeling of discomfort to consult with a trainer or doctor. Physical activity needs to ensure the growth of the muscle mass of joint, the femur and tibia. Comprehensive treatment may involve the use of medicinal ointments and compresses, which include Liaton, Voltaren. Massage should be performed by a professional or by yourself after a few treatments, carried out under the supervision of a specialist. As a rule, doctors do not recommend at once to operate on a patient after the injury, as there is a high risk of complications. If the broken bone fragment is displaced, it requires urgent surgery.
If the joint is loose, to move the foot is always very painful, and to build on it, require surgery. You have to wait about a month and a half after the injury before you go into surgery. During surgery does not occur crosslinking of the ligaments, as it does not give positive results. Ligament restore plastically using a portion of knee ligaments. Now often use artificial material for the plastic reconstruction of the ligaments.
It is important that the material used to restore the ligament, was quite tough and durable, the surgeon must position it correctly, fixing the position. It is allowed to use only your own ligaments as a transplant, but a donor. The main disadvantage of synthetic materials is their fragility. If the patient is assigned to the operation, he is in the hospital about 15 days in case of complications longer.
The operation is performed under the action of spinal anesthesia, which is safe enough. The doctor must not only restore the broken joint, but also to clear space in the joint from the fibers of dead tissue using a special tool. The new ligament is fixed with titanium bolts, one part is attached to the femur, and the other to the tibia. The operation takes aboutone and a half hours, then 2-3 hours the person departs from the anesthesia.
The rehabilitation period
If the graft is correctly fixed by a surgeon, excluded joint weakness. Mobilization plays a very important role, as the strength of the material is highest at the time of transplant. After the surgery requires a lot recovery time, it is necessary to observe some rules. The first week you should limit any load on the joint, the use of crutches. Even if you experience relief should not be abruptly loading the leg, it is very important to comprehensively restore the joint. Doctor prescribes physical therapy which should be combined with lymphatic drainage effect. It is necessary to provide in the first few days of the elevated position of the legs. The complete lack of stress or too strong effect on the foot affect the healing process. Optimum are moderate loads, ensuring the formation of collagen, which makes the ligaments flexible and movable.
During the postoperative period, you can perform polupricepy with a slight tilt of the torso, walking and other simple exercises for the legs. It is very important to avoid sudden movements during class. Before performing any exercise, it is better to consult a doctor or trainer in physical therapy. With conservative treatment the patient can begin work associated with physical labor, after about 5 weeks. If the surgery was performed, it requires more time - about 8 weeks for it to begin swimming, Hiking. First half of the year after the operation, it is not recommended to engage in active sports.