What is a rupture of ligaments of the knee joint?
One of the most common injury that often affects athletes is rupture of the ligaments of the knee joint. Such injury to the boxers, skiers or football and injuries of this kind often occur in everyday life.
From the anatomical point of view, a ligament is the tissue that performs the function of connection and strengthening of the bones and joints provide mobility of the knee joint and fixing it into the normal range. In the knee, excluding connecting links of the patella, there are 4 pairs of ligaments: lateral and cruciate. When a significant load is large the probability of their stretching or tearing. Because the ligaments hold the structure of the knee joint and stabilize its work, the damage to the knee ligaments is a serious injury to the musculoskeletal system can cause significant damage to the body.
Causes of injury
Apart from people actively involved in sports, ligament rupture of the knee joint can occur in children, but also lead to this injury is capable of any household situation. What are the circumstances that can trigger damage to the ligaments of the knee:
- rapid running and the equally rapid stop;
- bad landing;
- a sudden change of the motional vector;
- inadequate stress on the patellar ligament;
- falling on the knee;
- the impact in the knee area;
- sharp flexion and extension.
There are sports in which a full or partial rupture of ligaments of the knee joint is a common occupational hazard: weightlifting, basketball, skiing, bodybuilding, hockey, handball and football.
There are several types of damage related to the violation of the integrity of a fiber:
- Injury to the lateral ligaments, internal or external: such ruptures are sprains of the legs while in uncomfortable shoes, walk on uneven terrain, clumsy movements, in the case of excessive deviation of the tibia inward or outward.
- Damage to the cruciate ligaments often occurs when strong directional blow.
Injuries of the knee ligaments: symptoms
Torn ligaments are 3 degrees of severity:
- Partial damage while maintaining the integrity of tissues.
- A large part of the binder fibers are injured, movement is limited.
- Total damage. Joint instability can be observed visually.
Due to the fact that ligaments in the knee has a large number of nerve nodes, pain in such injuries are very significant. In addition,allocate such characteristic signs of the knee injury:
- strong hyperemia at the site of injury;
- frequent cases of temperature rise;
- violations of motor activity of either motion is somewhat complicated, or there is complete restraint;
- possible bleeding in the region of soft tissue;
- at tactile contact occurs painful reaction;
- unusual sensations and sounds: the crunch, heard;
- swelling and hematoma can occur after a certain time;
- vessels, which penetrated the knee joint, with a high probability can be squeezed or destroyed, which will increase the bruising, will direct the collateral circulation paths;
- inadequate mobility in the area of damage;
- the inability to move the center of gravity on the injured leg.
Important! Sometimes the person is in a state close to shock, which allows him to walk and actively move my bad knee. This is a temporary phenomenon, so no conclusions favorable to do, on the contrary, it is necessary to calm the patient and as quickly as possible to address to the traumatologist.
A sprain or ligament rupture: emergency
From well-provided medical care depends on the further course of the disease and success of treatment. Necessary actions:
- cold application: as soon as possible should be applied to injured knee cold, ice or drenched foot of the icy jets of water;
- to treat the wound, if any;
- bandage the area of the knee with an elastic bandage but not too tight;
- with intense pain take pain medications;
- top dressings can be applied cold hot-water bottle;
- strictly comply with bed rest;
- try to quickly deliver the victim to the clinic.
To provide professional assistance to the patient can only by qualified medical personnel after a thorough diagnosis.
Rupture of ligaments of the knee joint: treatment
The correct diagnosis in a clinic - the key to adequate treatment and subsequent rehabilitation.
To begin with, the podiatrist will inspect the damaged knee, will conduct a survey of the patient, and then, most likely, will undergo more comprehensive examination, including x-ray, ultrasound and CT scan. It is necessary for a more thorough diagnostic test on the subject related cracks, fractures, tissue damage.
After diagnosis, depending on the severity of the injury will be assigned a therapy. Itis based on the following principles.
- Gentle treatment. Only rest can provide the affected joint a speedy recovery, so the first thing used to treat such injuries is rest. Movement in the acute phase should be minimal. Only under these conditions, the pain and redness will decrease.
- The compresses. In the first days, such procedures can only be cold. This will reduce swelling and reduce the effects of hemorrhage.
- Bandaging. The procedure is performed with the help of tapes, elastic bandages, bandages, orthoses, casts and is not too tight. Such measures prevent pathological movement activity of the knee area and securely fix it in position.
- Special pose. The leg should be raised with the help of home remedies (cushion, pillow) or hospital equipment. Height is determined by the principle: higher than the heart.
- Pain event. With regard to medical treatment, in the first place is anesthesia. Usually use oral agents or injections. After a few days can be used warming ointment that also has anesthetic effect. Warmly recommended strictly after the stop of the internal vascular bleeding.
- Physiotherapy. In order to accelerate the process of tissue regeneration, used in magnetic therapy, paraffin pack, UHF. And practice of therapeutic massage.
- Physiotherapy. A necessary condition of recovery is the implementation of special complex of exercises for a complete recover its functions of the knee joint.
- Surgical methods. Used in extreme cases of absolute rupture of the ligaments, and extensive hemorrhage. Such interference can be: microsurgical occurs when stitching the damaged fibers; using autograft reconstruction of the knee joint from fragments of healthy ligaments; with the use of allograft - taking donor material for the operation.
Often for the treatment of such injuries used by the local media:
- "Voltaren", Diclofenac for inflammation;
- based tools prednisolone and hydrocortisone;
- anesthetic "Ultrafast";
- to obtain a warming effect, preparations based on camphor, essential oils;
- also used heparin ointment to reduce swelling and Caffeine to constrict blood vessels;
- menthol means is used for cooling;
- with the success of the practice of combined treatment of local medicines: "Diclobene", "Finalgon", "Menovazin".
Haveright to exist, and traditional recipes that are valid to use in coordination with your doctor. To cure the damaged joint only non-traditional methods is not possible, but to speed up the recovery period is quite real.
- Clay ointment. A mixture of Apple cider vinegar and river mud will be an excellent warming wrap that will reduce inflammation and numb.
- The versatile potato. Grated into mush potatoes, onions and cabbage, applied to the knee at night, will quickly relieve the redness and inflammation.
- Saline compress. Sea salt, dissolved in water at room temperature, put on a folded bandage, tape it to the affected area and wrap.
Implications and rehabilitation
The duration of rehabilitation period depends on the severity of the injury and timely treatment services staff. For example, after rupture of the first degree, the rehabilitation may last up to 2 months after surgery - up to six months. In such cases, it is all about the desire of the patient to recovery: a conscientious implementation of the recommendations and exercises, Spa treatment, rational use of national resources. Under such conditions the prognosis is favorable: possible full restoration of the former functions.
Preventive measures are simple tips:
- the maintenance of adequate physical activity;
- an exception from the wardrobe of uncomfortable shoes;
- correction weight;
- mandatory warm-up before sports;
- the inclusion in the menu of vitamins and products, strengthen joint cartilage.
After such an injury return to active life is possible, if you follow all the advice of your podiatrist.