The sudden dislocation is the worst
Dislocation is a change in the position or shape of the articular surfaces of the bones, which can occur due to internal or external causes. The internal causes include diseases that provoke the fragility of the joints, arthrosis and arthritis, tuberculosis, syphilis, purulent inflammation around the joint. The external causes include mechanical damage, falls, accidents, blows on a hard surface, careless interaction with your own body, for example, the victim cracked his knuckles and dislocated her wrist.
The types of existing dislocations
What dislocation is a violation of the fixation of bones in the joint, a complete or partial withdrawal from the bones of the joint. Statistical dislocations are less common than fractures, and may occur entirely in any joint, from the spine to the little finger of the left foot. According to various estimates, they account for about 3% of all injuries of the musculoskeletal apparatus. Dislocations of the upper extremities occur eight times more often than bottom. The most vulnerable to this injury of the shoulder, elbow, interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints. In the lower extremities is the hip, ankle and knee joints. In its origin dislocations are congenital and traumatic. In case of simultaneous fracture of the articular surface of the bone and shifting it relative to the normal position, used the term "perelomova". According to the degree of limitation extended this classification of sprains:
- fresh, appearance was no more than three days;
- stale, old, up to three weeks;
- old, happened over three weeks ago.
The same bones can regularly change their position in the joint, this phenomenon is called habitual dislocation. If the injury occurs damage to the skin, and formed a wound, communicating with the environment, is an open dislocation. If the integrity of the skin remains unchanged, it is a closed dislocation. The risk of open dislocation that failure to comply with sanitary conditions in the wound may get infected, which will lead to festering and a number of complications up to loss of limbs.
In order to correctly provide first aid to the victim, it is important to be able to recognize the signs of a dislocation.
What are the symptoms of dislocation
Immediately after injury, the victim feels severe pain in the limb, which may also indicate a fracture. On their own without x-ray examination to make a diagnosis impossible. When the dislocation changes the size and shape of the joint, the limb is visually may look elongated or shortened. In addition to thesesigns appears:
- it clicks when you exit the bones of the joint;
- swelling around the injury site;
- hematoma and bruising, which over time shifts below;
- reddening and blanching of the skin near the site of the injury;
- if the damaged nerve endings, possible loss of skin sensation, numbness, or tingling;
- fever, weakness.
The number of symptoms depends on the specifics of the injury and from individual to individual. Some patients have not observed the increase in temperature, someone, a strong swelling. Dislocations are often complicated by pinching the soft tissue between the articular surfaces of bones, tear and compression of great vessels, rupture of the joint capsule, intra-articular hemorrhage and rupture of ligaments. This injury may be affected and the bones themselves, for example, in dislocation of the shoulder may be torn tubercle, to which are attached the cords. The victim may not actively use the limb moves in a forced position.
Almost always in the dislocation disrupted the natural position of the bone so that it is noticeable at first glance. For example, with dislocation in the joint of the rear hip bone, the victim can not fully straighten the leg, knees deployed inside. In dislocation of the cervical vertebrae of the patient can not turn his head.
If you have suffered from a dislocation of the acromial end of the clavicle, the bone sticks out, the arm cannot be raised above the shoulders. All types of dislocations violate the harmonious work of joints, it is therefore very important to seek the assistance of a competent specialist reduction. Incorrect reposition of dislocation can lead to chronic pain in the joint.
Emergency care for all types of sprains
The main task of the person providing first aid is to call the doctor or deliver the victim to the injury point. If knowledge of anatomy and skills of wound dressing allows you to do the following:
- With open dislocations of first necessity is the disinfection of the wound by any antiseptic, for example hydrogen peroxide. After should stop the bleeding, gently put it on the wound with a pressure bandage.
- Fixing the affected bones in a fixed position with tires made of hard materials or of the gusset plate occurs only after the bleeding stops. Sprains of the hand, if there are no other available tools, you can tape the hand to the body. Sprains of the fingers - to fix a sore thumb relatively healthy. In a case of dislocation of the lower limbs, the patientneeds to use legs as a support, it is desirable to lay before the arrival of the ambulance.
- For pain relief you can give any non-narcotic analgesic, which is washed down with water. About all accepted medicines need to tell the ambulance or trauma.
- To the site of injury can be applied the ice pack, a bottle of ice water, a frozen piece of meat. Cold helps narrow blood vessels and reduce pain. Ice cannot be applied to the skin directly, it is better to wrap the ice pack in a towel or cloth.
- All the time before arrival at trauma point, the victim should not move the damaged limb or joint, to occupy the position in which it is most convenient. Sprains of the lower extremities the transportation is performed lying on the back seat of the car. With any injury there is an absolute ban on self-driving vehicles.
- You shouldn't try to reduce a dislocation, must be done by a professional surgeon after diagnosis.
The person who provides first aid, is to remain calm and refrain from rash action.
Take the victim on the hands or carry, slung over his shoulder is not desirable, but in an emergency need to do so, in order to avoid pressure on the injured limb.
If timely treatment for complications of dislocations usually do not occur, and the forecast for favorable treatment. The main symptoms of traumatic dislocation can be easily confused with symptoms of incomplete fracture, however, first aid measures will be the same in both cases.
Radical treatment of dislocation
On arrival at the point of injury to the patient is adequate analgesia, depending on the severity of the injury. Then the doctor palpated the affected area, conducts x-ray examination, sometimes refers to computed tomography. After the diagnosis and exclude fracture under General anesthesia is performed manually reposition the articular surfaces of bones, the injured limb is pulled in the right direction until you hear a characteristic click.
In mild cases, local anesthesia is used. For muscle relaxation, the patient entered the muscle relaxants. In order to position the bone fixated, and often a plaster is not less than three weeks. If the victim is the probability of wound infections, vaccination against tetanus, sometimes as a preventive measure is prescribed a course of antibiotics. Dirty wounds are often combined with dislocations occur in casual ball games, street football, basketball,volleyball.
The complex of rehabilitation measures for the development of the injured joint is fixed after removing the clips.
Rehabilitation after injury
For the speedy recovery of all useful functions of the limb must comply with all doctor's recommendations and do not load the joint prematurely. Rehabilitation rehabilitation after dislocation commonly consist of:
- physiotherapeutic procedures;
- therapeutic massage which can be done independently, with family or a qualified professional;
- physiotherapy, a specially selected set of exercises that are effective for each specific kind of injury.
Time complete rehabilitation depends on many factors: the presence of complications, age and health of the patient, from the individual body's ability to regenerate, and especially from the injury. The timing of the return to active life there is a large scatter:
- One month after uncomplicated dislocation of the hip joint, the patient begins to walk, using crutches. Three months later, when the responsible attitude to the gym, the patient no longer needs crutches and can get to work.
- Recovery in dislocation of the foot takes from two months to a year, depending on the specific bone displacement and the overall severity of the injury.
- Luxation of the cervical vertebrae superimposed plaster bandage for a period of from six months to eight months, then removed a hernia, if it was formed.
- Sprains of the fingers and the feet away from three weeks to two months for full rehabilitation.
Dislocation treatment requires a radical - right-first-reposition of the dislocated best solution. Some complications occur with a delay, and the patient may not be aware of them until the time comes to remove the cast. For example, in dislocation of the shoulder complications may occur after 2 - 3 weeks, and can lead to disability of the victim. With such symptoms it is time to re-apply for medical help:
- not restored skin sensitivity in any of the zones;
- the limb or joint to work properly, the value of the angle of flexion and deviations from the axes do not coincide with the indicators of a healthy person;
- develop chronic pain or discomfort during movement;
- the joint crackles, clicks, skips.
With increasing temperature or increasing pain in the area of trauma treatment to the doctor is required urgently. Wrongthe position of the bones in the joints can lead to:
- habitual dislocation;
- chronic pain, rheumatism;
- the pinched nerve;
- inflammation, necrosis, causing the joint will have to surgically remove and replace with an artificial one.
In order to prevent dislocation of the joint, it is important to observe safety precautions when playing Amateur sports, especially ski. In the game of football to use only a convenient and tightly covers up the shoes. In the game of volleyball, basketball and other ball games is sure to enhance the receiving ability of the palm of your hand with an elastic bandage, use protectors to protect the knees. It is especially important to protect the neck, head, elbows and knees when traveling by motorcycle, a popular cause of the dislocations is of the accident and the blows of blunt objects. If the injury has occurred, you should definitely contact the injury claim even if at the first signs it seems that it's just a bruise.
Any breach in the normal functioning of the joints involve either the dislocation or the beginning of the disease. Definition of the problem, accurate diagnosis and the reduction of the dislocation from the first time - it is the task of a competent surgeon.