Features dislocation of the knee joint
Not always people understand what a dislocation of the knee joint. And really - like knee is, and where there is a joint, is unclear.
Basically, when we are talking about the dislocation of the knee joint, it is meant that are shifted relative to each other the bones that connect in the knee. It's big and small tibia and femur. The knee is the connection of these bones due to the ligaments and the friction between them is softened due to the smooth cartilage between them and a special lubricated by the synovial fluid. To the knee "took off", it is surrounded by a capsule joint capsule. Outside connection joints and protects from injury of knee Cup - this bone is oval in shape.
Typically, such injuries of the lower extremities are diseases of adults and the child of all the types of these diseases most often there is only one dislocation of the patella. The causes may be the weakness of the ligaments in the area of this element of the articular apparatus. However, often this dislocation in children can reduce a spontaneously before specialist examination is one of the characteristics of a child's growing body.
The causes of injury of the lower limb
Causes of dislocation of the knee joint can be several. The most frequent traumatic dislocations. They are related to the fact that the knee joint was the external impact, the force of which was higher than the value of the strength structures of the joint, and the direction does not coincide with the axis of the joint. This may be either a very strong kick in the shins or falling on the knee or extended leg. In the latter case, the impact force affects the weight of the human body.
Other causes can be a variety of pathological dislocation of the knee congenital or acquired.
Congenital dislocation of the knee is a pathology that occurred during intrauterine development of the fetus. In this case, such changes of the joint can be predetermined genetically or is due to underdevelopment of some structures in the knee joint. Most often, this congenital abnormality occurs in the hip, but the knee joint is less prone to a similar pathology in its development. Sometimes the fetus may occur isolated dislocation of the patella.
Sometimes pathological dislocation of this joint is a complication of disease or other influences to which he was subjected. It could be arthritis or arthrosis, which led to changes in the structures of the joint, muscle paralysis or partial paralysis, the cause of which can be pathological changes inhead or spinal cord, which relax the muscles around the joint.
If in the body there is a lack of calcium, you can start disease of a type of osteoporosis in which the density of bone tissue is reduced. If the lower extremities were injured (fractures or dislocations), the likelihood of re-injury will be great.
In addition, the muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in a normal state, deteriorated with age, or the cause of degradation can be such bone diseases as tuberculosis.
All of the above reasons are the cause of the dislocation of the knee.
The main symptoms
In all sprains, there are some symptoms that are common to them all: in the knee region have any pain, my leg took the wrong position, the joint is changed the usual shape, the joint becomes immobile.
When subluxation the patient may complain that the patella is in an unstable position when walking pain occur at the site of injury, and kneecap any movement is accompanied by the characteristic crunch. Besides, it is impossible to fully straighten the leg.
But the dislocation of the patella directly accompanied by these additional symptoms, like pronounced swelling in the damaged location to the site of injury there are changes of the knee, they look like stairs. In addition, the patella begins to "float" and active walking extremely difficult.
With any knee injuries, you must consult a doctor. Moreover, an x-ray will have - without it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis. On the basis of examination of the patient, common complaints of a patient and an x-ray will be specifically installed is a dislocation of the knee or kneecap or some other injuries of the lower extremity.
Such dislocations veterinarians diagnose and dogs. The main symptoms and treatment of such injuries in these animals are almost similar with similar dislocations of people.
Treatment of dislocation of knee
Treatment of such injuries of the joints in any case impossible to do yourself, this must be done by qualified trauma surgeons. Otherwise, you may experience additional injuries in the area of damage.
Usually the healing process takes a long time.
First, the doctor sets all the damaged bone, then these joints are fixed with a plaster bandage, that the joint was immobile.
dislocation">When the plaster will be removed, you will need to undergo various procedures that contribute to the speedy rehabilitation of damaged limbs.
The damaged joint needs to be in a state of immobility, therefore, the patient is recommended in any case not to step on the injured limb, in the movement to use crutches. If the patient is at rest, the injured leg must be placed on the dais and try not to move it during the holidays.
Typically rehabilitation from such injuries of the lower extremities are assigned to various physiotherapeutic procedures, in addition, the doctor prescribes special exercises to develop knee joint.
Depending on the severity of the dislocation treat them in the hospital and at home. Where and how to treat such patients, the doctor solves only.
Treatment of dislocation of the knee joint.
To reduce a dislocated patella and immobilize the injured joint in a stationary state is a matter of specialists. But to relieve the pain in the injured place until the arrival of the doctor can be by means that you always have on hand in any home.
Good relieves pain usual dough. It is mixed in water and vinegar and placed on the affected knee. This should be done carefully so as not to move the joints more.
Help relieve pain poultice of fresh leaves of common wormwood. They need to stretch so as to obtain a slurry. It is applied to the damaged area in the form of compresses or lotions.
Sprains of the knee are advised to make compresses of the usual warmed milk. The compress can be kept on the damaged area for a long time, only need to change a cloth soaked in hot milk as it cools down.
You can use the recipes of traditional medicine. Grind the dried root of elecampane, 50 g of the crushed root pour 200 ml of boiling water, the resulting infusion is necessary for 1/3 hours. The resulting mixture must be applied as a lotion on the sore spot.
Take 50 g of crushed flowers of tansy agrimony and dry, pour the mixture 400 g of boiling water, boil for 1/3 hour, let stand for 10-15 minutes, be sure to strain. This broth can be used for compresses and lotions that are superimposed on the damaged area.
Prevention of this injury
Usually people who have well trained leg muscles, never get injuries of the knee joint. Therefore, doctors recommend that everyone, especially the elderly, to walk more, ride a bike or exercise on a stationary bike. In addition,can be at home to exercise, basic exercises for which prompt professionals. All these activities are aimed at strengthening and training the muscles and ligaments of the legs, which effectively helps to prevent future sprains in the knee joint.
In such events, aimed at strengthening the muscles and ligaments in the lower extremities is the prevention of any knee injuries.