Causes of subluxation of cervical vertebra and its treatment
Subluxation of the cervical vertebra - an injury which consists in changing the position of the whole bone relative to each other. The cervical vertebrae articulate with each other, with articular surfaces, the first two vertebrae connected by the specific joint, which bears the name of Crovella. The first vertebra adjacent to the cranial vault, has the name of Atlant, and the next is called the axis.
In appearance Atlant has similarities with the ring, which is located inside the spinal cord extending from it with nerve roots. The Atlanta connection and the axis, as a vital education in the human body, additionally enhanced by the odontoid process of the second vertebra. Joint Crovella reinforced by powerful ligamentous apparatus, which allows him to be flexible and at the same time very durable.
Injuries such as subluxation of the cervical vertebrae, are rare, but require special attention and proper treatment. If for some reason people do not seek medical help, with age, may develop in this disease the articular-ligamentous apparatus. Very dangerous the formation of a large hematoma in the first two vertebrae, because hemorrhage into the soft tissue can injure nerves and constrict the blood vessels.
Causes and signs of injury
The majority of clinical cases, according to experts from 30 to 50% of all subluxations of the cervical vertebrae, it is necessary on a rotational subluxation of the cervical vertebra Atlanta. An important predisposing factor to injury is muscle weakness and joint and ligamentous apparatus. What causes subluxation?
- the fall on the head;
- incorrect grouping when you roll;
- a direct blow to the head;
- hit his head on the bottom when diving from a height or in shallow water.
For the occurrence of subluxation in a newborn does not require special effects. Muscle skeleton babies are so untrained that even raising the inept hands can lead to subluxation of the cervical vertebra. That is why children up to the moment they learn how to confidently hold your head, you should take up exactly to the emphasis of the head on a hard surface arm.
You can't take the baby so that the head hung down, wobbled or was unstable. As for the elderly, in the absence of tonic gymnastics they can get a subluxation, just jerked his head. The older a person is, the longer the healing injury and the younger, the more dangerous the consequences might be. Subluxation has the following features:
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- the patient appears of tinnitus, which is caused by trauma to nerve endings;
- because of damage to ligaments and tendons, his head takes an unnatural position, rotate the head from side to side the victim comes out;
- there is a sharp pain in the neck, lower jaw, shoulders and shoulder blades, sometimes the pain affects all the muscles of the shoulder girdle;
- my eyes get cloudy, vision can deteriorate significantly, indicating that the damage to the nerve roots;
- edema at the site of subluxation, the formation of hematoma;
- may dizziness up to fainting, strong pressure surges;
- manifested pain when swallowing motion, can swell the tongue.
Symptoms allow us to determine the location of the subluxation. If the affected shoulder Department, most likely, the injury occurred in the lower cervical vertebrae. Pain may be given in the back, chest, head and have any intensity from mild to unbearable. It depends on the individual innervation and the nature of the injury.
Children rotary subluxation occurs when the head turns without support, especially when shifting out of the crib or cot.
Subluxation of the neck in children
Due to the unstable mounting of the head of the newborn baby in some cases to determine the subluxation of the vertebra is obtained only after a long time, when will the violations of freedom of head movements. Other possible complications:
- poor memory and concentration;
- violations of the right head position when walking.
Fully cognizant of the possibility of receiving such injury does not, however, possible to arrange to have a child treated very carefully. Often all irregularities in the development of the child is attributed to birth trauma or inept actions of obstetricians and gynecologists, but the reality is that to contribute to the development of the child has subluxation of the first cervical vertebra can any man who takes him in hand without compliance with safety regulations.
First aid and diagnosis
To the victim not caused more damage, his head must be hard to fix with the help of tire improvised. The roller folds of cloth, cotton wool, and then tied off around the neck so that his head lay on this design. To breathe people in the bus should be free. If there was a car accident, to get the victim only in the case of a bomb threat. In all other situations it acts the samerule: move the person to change his position, to carry somewhere on hand only if to remain in place is dangerous. In all other cases it is necessary to leave the victim where he is, and to call an ambulance.
To provide immobilizing with subluxation of the cervical vertebrae, having only a basic knowledge of first aid, risky.
The result of unskillful actions can occur a pinched nerve bundle or damage to major blood vessel, which is rich in this area. To ease the unbearable pain can be given non-narcotic pain medication from home, sports or car first aid kits, drink water. Dangerous to drink the medicine with water while lying, but is even more dangerous to raise your head and strain your neck muscles. If possible, anesthesia is better to postpone before arrival of doctors. The faster the ambulance arrives, the better, because spreading the swelling prevents the proper reduction of the dislocation.
If the person who renders first aid, is not appropriate for this diploma or certificate, and during the reposition of the dislocation occurring the deterioration of the victim, these actions are subject to criminal liability as causing harm by negligence. If unsuccessful reposition dislocation occurs the death of the victim, and it is quite possible, the action is classified as involuntary manslaughter with all relevant sanctions. Reduction of any dislocation should be done only by professionals, because it is a big responsibility. Used to diagnose:
- x-ray study;
- computed tomography;
- magnetic resonance imaging.
After reduction is superimposed collar Trench to immobilize the neck or craniofacially bandage for a period of two weeks to three months.
Treatment and rehabilitation
For pain used electrophoresis with novocaine, ultrasound therapy and oral pain medication. In order to prevent the inflammatory process and related complications of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Therapeutic exercise and therapeutic massage played an important role in recovery after injury. Special exercises for a speedy recovery are selected based on damage to the articular-ligamentous apparatus.
Should take responsibility for the rehabilitation period, otherwise the subluxation may become a chronic phenomenon. If in a month after injury still are not problems with vision, hearing, and control over all the muscles of the neck, you should address to the neuropathologist mayhappened to pinching the nerve endings.
In order to prevent it is recommended to strengthen the muscle corset, be careful when engaging in Amateur sports and learn the rules group of the body while tumbling, falling and performing stands on his head.