How is splinting fracture of the lower jaw
How is splinting fracture of the lower jaw? This question is of interest to many patients.
Such injuries in medical practice is not a rarity. According to statistics they make up one seventh part of all types of fractures. However, in order to detect a fracture, you need to know the symptoms. This will provide the patient with timely medical assistance.
What is the fracture of the mandible
This injury, which is associated with the integrity of a bone of the lower jaw. She is accompanied by damage of muscle tissue that surround a broken bone.
Often damaged nerves and blood vessels.
The reasons that lead to the fracture of the mandible, may be different:
- This can be a mechanical force, such as a blow or fall.
- However, the causes can be pathological, for example, diseases which cause bones to become fragile.
- It may be osteomyelitis, tumor. Severe osteomyelitis leads to that starts to happen the death of parts of bone, and it may cause spontaneous fracture.
How to identify a fractured jaw
This corruption is accompanied by certain symptoms:
- There is a strong pain.
- To open or close the mouth difficult. The pain intensifies, and hear a distinctive click.
- Often there is a shift of the jaw to the side.
- In that case, if there is damage to the nerve endings, a sense of numbness.
- There is a rupture of the tissues, which are located above the bone of the jaw.
- The patient has a headache, and he complains of dizziness.
The nature of the symptoms may differ depending on the damaged area. In order to determine the type of injury, you should contact the hospital to carry out a thorough diagnosis.
How is diagnosis
- The doctor examines the patient.
- Shall appoint an x-ray.
- Often the damage is accompanied by brain damage.
- May be damaged cervical spine.
Classification of these injuries are very diverse. They are divided by the factors of fractures. The reasons may be etiological and causal. The fracture line is indirect, direct, oblique, zigzag. The number of bone fragments, the fracture may be, for example, multiple, single, double, triple. Possible fracture of only the lower or upper jaw. The degree of bone injury is complete or incomplete.
jaws" alt="Methods of immobilization of fragments of broken lower jaw">the Degree of tissue damage may be different. In a closed fracture the soft tissue remains intact, outdoor - leads to serious damage.
But that's not all. Very often, the damage can be affected by defects, in such case they are called mixed.
Treatment depends on many factors, which are determined with the diagnosis. During the examination, the doctor attaches great importance to the state of the patient. Important criteria are: pulse rate, blood pressure. In order to exclude traumatic brain injury, the doctor prescribes a CT scan.
A doctor examining a patient, is carefully studying the defects, bruises. In addition, the designated specific test that allows to determine the location of the fracture. At the final stage of inspection need to undergo x-rays.
The lower jaw has features that are determined by its anatomical structure. Its structure is thin, so even a slight blow can cause a fracture. Very often defines the fractures of the jaw in multiple places.
Treatment is usually complex and requires a long recovery.
How to treat such injuries
If diagnosed, treatment should begin immediately, otherwise there can be serious complications. In case of accident, the patient must, as soon as possible, send to the hospital. However, to properly give first aid. This is great for a bus - if not, then you can use a bandage or bandage.
As a rule, most often damaged: projection of the mental hole, the middle part, the corner part, the joints. All injuries are accompanied by swelling of tissues.
So the first thing to do is to apply a cold compress. After the patient is taken to hospital, the doctor makes local anesthesia, and then examines and combines broken bones. Then superimposed the bus to commit for the duration of the treatment.The main method of treatment of mandibular fractures is splinting. The bus consists of a special design which is manufactured from wire or plastic.
Types of splinting
If broken, only one half of the jaw, superimposed one-way bus. It is a structure of wire, which is fastened on the affected side of the jaw.
If some broken parts, it uses more hard wire, where the reliability of fixation used hooks and rings. Often such tyres are used when the damage of both jaws.
A splint made of plastic is applied, starting from the bottom of the chin and furthercheeks. Then everything is secured by bandaging. Plastic tyres are used if necessary to urgently transport the patient.When you have a complex fracture of the tire are imposed only after all fragments combined. Often require special devices that provide additional fixation.
Fractures of the facial parts very often lead to complications. It can be diseases of the upper sinuses, softening of bones, formation of a false joint. In order to avoid such complications after the fracture should be to eat. In addition, the doctor appoints reception of antibacterial drugs, physical therapy, vitamins.
If the patient is too late went to the doctor, the jaw can grow together properly. In this case, the only way to fix the situation - to carry out the operation.The fracture heals, not earlier than a month. All this time the patient has to eat liquid food.