How to provide first aid for fractures?
For various injuries you have to have first aid before he will be able to reach a health facility. First aid for fractures is especially necessary, because it depends on the patient's condition upon further treatment.
First aid for fractures is carried out in accordance with the nature of the injuries. Depending on the type of injury injuries can be:
- closed fracture;
- an open fracture;
- intra-articular fracture, when the damage lies in the articular capsule, where it is bleeding.
Contusion, dislocation, sprain
When injuries happens large damage of tissues. You may receive subcutaneous superficial bruise. You should apply cold to the injury site. Helps light massage.
Sprains is a violation of the provisions of bones synovial bags. The bag itself can also suffer from this. It possible tissue damage. That dislocation occurred can be judged by the following criteria:
- swelling of the joint;
- the change in its common forms;
- pathological changes in the movements of the bones within the joint.
First aid for fractures in this case involves the following sequence of actions: we should try to fix the joint in the most comfortable position and bring the patient in a medical institution. By not trying to reduce a dislocated bone, as this could further aggravate the condition. If the dislocation was not provided with timely assistance and do not go to the doctor, the violation remains. Over time it is fixed, and fix it then it will be possible only surgically.
A sprain is an injury in which the ligaments of the affected joints. It may be a sharp stretch or tear of the ligament. At the site of injury, a strong pain, but if there is a gap, there is an internal hemorrhage. This preserves the joint's ability to move.
In sore need to put something cold on it for 15 minutes. This procedure is preferably carried out 3 times a day for the first and second day after stretching. On the third day it is recommended to start, on the contrary, warming of the affected area dry heat or vodka compress. The diseased joint should not be moved for 2-3 days, you need to tightly wrap it.
You must passconsult a specialist to make sure there is no tear in the fabric. If you do not pay attention to the rupture of the ligament, it will remain weak and subsequently will not be good to support the joint during exercise.
Aid for fractures
There are General rules about how must be provided first aid for fractures. They must know each, because there are life situations in which they might be useful.
We must always remember that the first aid care of fractures is essential in the main task: not to harm the affected person.
Therefore, all activities on first aid at fracture (PMP) should be carried out with great care. Especially in fractures of the spine, thorax. It is better when two people help.
In order to properly provide first aid for fractures, you should be able to identify these violations. Signs of bone fracture are:
- severe pain;
- the violation of the external shape of the damaged area;
- changing the length of the bone;
- can disrupt the mobility in the area, following the traumatized;
- squeaking due to friction of broken parts of bone together;
- painful spot begins to swell.
First aid for fractures consists of several stages. First of all, be sure to create a rest for the injured area. This will avoid displacement of the broken parts. Also it will prevent increased pain, can cause dangerous shock. You can offer to the patient to drink warm tea. If he was cold, then carefully cover it with a warm blanket.
Open and closed fracture
First aid for an open fracture must be given with great caution and in stages. The procedure of the following:
- a preliminary diagnosis of the wound;
- pain relief available by prescription;
- the treatment of open wounds with antiseptic to avoid infection;
- tying a tourniquet to stop bleeding;
- overlay a sterile napkin and tying with a sterile bandage;
- fixation of the injured area in a stationary and convenient position with a tire;
- hospitalization of the victim.
First aid for open and closed fractures are different. First aid for a closed fracture does not include the treatment with an antiseptic, a tourniquet and a sterile dressingmaterial.
You must be able to determine the type of bleeding in trauma. In a closed fracture occurs when damage of the soft tissues surrounding the affected bone. Bleeding internal, it contributes to the formation of a bruise on the body. In this case, after fixation of the fracture from above can be applied cold. With an open fracture the blood leaking from the wound. If bleeding is intense, has a bright red color and comes in the form of ripple, it is arterial bleeding. In this case, a tourniquet is placed above the wound. If the blood dark, runs continuously and slowly, it means that the affected vein and the tourniquet must be placed below the damaged area.
First aid for fractures of the lower extremities should be provided given the fact that the victim cannot get to the doctor.
Therefore, it should be transferred via stretcher or equivalent available tools and can be transported, laying on his back and holding his hands.
The first aid for fractures is that it is necessary to ensure immobilization of the affected limb.
This is done through tires. In the campaign they can be made of boards, twigs, plastics, skis, ski poles. Between the body and the tyre must be a soft pad of cotton wool or matter. Fixation should be reliable.
Splint so that it captured two joints adjacent to the damaged bone. The primary bus is placed under the rear surface of the foot to the limb do not bend. Should not be allowed to friction of the broken bone on the bus. Clothes when fixing a tire is not necessary to take off so as not to cause displacement of the bones and increased pain. Bus superimposed on top of the pants. First it is necessary to conduct pain relief with tablets containing analgin. In the case of hip fracture the length of the bus should be sufficient to have enough from the bottom of the feet to the waist. Bandage it should be for the entire length.
In the absence of a bus broken leg can firmly attach to the healthy leg. In this case, it is necessary to transport the patient in the supine position. If affected stop, the fixed fingers and the joint above the foot.
First aid for fracture of the pelvis does not include the imposition of a tire. Man is placed on his back, legs apart. This provision relieves. Wrap my legs around soft cushions that you can roll up clothes. Require hospitalization of the patientpossible.
If there is a broken arm, it is necessary carefully to catch her at the bottom with a piece of cloth and fasten using strings fabric for the back of the neck. If the fracture is in the forearm, it is necessary to fix it with the two tires. Put one on the palm side, and the other from the back side. If a finger breaks, it is tightly tied to another finger.
At the turn of the shoulder belt under his arm enclose cotton wool or something soft. Hand it is necessary to bandage to the torso, pre-hung it on the matter by the neck. Delivery of the victim to the medical facility are carried out in a sitting position.
When rib fractures first aid is complicated by the fact that during breathing the rib cage is in constant motion. We must try to reduce the amplitude of these movements. For this it is necessary to wrap the Breasts matter more tightly. With this bandage in breathing will involve the abdominal muscles. And the mobility of the ribs will decrease. It is necessary to consider that the injured person is unable to speak should not therefore engage him in conversation. Transportation to the place of hospitalization of the patient is in a sitting position.
Particularly dangerous fractures of the spine. Not to do unnecessary movements. The patient is placed on her stomach on the hard stretcher and immediately hospitalitynet.
First aid, and medical aid for fractures is very important. Thanks to a timely and competent first aid, significantly increasing the chances of a successful recovery. Upon arrival at the medical facility which makes a report using the physician about the performed activities.